Preparation and in-vitro cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against osteoarthritic chondrocytes
Purpose: To prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Piper betle leaf extract by a green synthetic approach, and to evaluate their cytotoxicity towards human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
Methods: ZnO NPs were prepared by heating 30 mL of 0.1 M zinc nitrate (ZnNO3) with 10 mL of Piper betle leaf extract at 90°C for 4 h. The ZnO NPs produced were characterized by various techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of the NPs against human osteoarthritic chondrocytes was studied using eosin Y test method.
Results: The change in color of the reaction solution from colorless to pale white within 1 h indicated the formation of ZnO NPs. FTIR results revealed coating of plant polyphenols on ZnO NPs surface while XRD and EDS demonstrated the hexagonal structure of crystalline ZnO NPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM analyses indicate hexagonal NPs with a mean particle size of 32 nm. In-vitro
cytotoxicity data showed that the NPs exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity towards osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
Conclusions: A simple, fast and eco-friendly method for the preparation of ZnO NPs using Piper betle leaf extract is reported here. The NPs exhibit concentration-dependent toxicity towards human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
Keywords: Zinc oxide nanoparticles, Piper betle, Cytotoxicity, Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, Energydispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy