Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers (Poaceae) root extract induces apoptotic cell death via the cyclin D1 pathway in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo
Purpose: To investigate the activity of Cynodon dactylon root extract as a potential anticancer agent.
Methods: Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HNK-1 cells were treated with ethanol extract of C. dactylon roots. After treatment with C. dactylon root extract, cells were assessed for their cytotoxicity, metabolic status, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The anticancer activity of the extract was also determined in vivo using a mouse model.
Results: C. dactylon extract exhibited significant cytotoxicity and arrested cell cycle in HNK-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) data revealed that it also induced apoptotic cell death. Rb phosphorylation and mRNA levels of cyclin E were significantly reduced. Moreover, C. dactylon extract caused a significant reduction in tumor size and volume in vivo.
Conclusion: C. dactylon root extract induces apoptosis in nasopharyngeal cancer cells via cyclin D1 pathway and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.
Keywords: Cynodon dactylon, Anticancer, Cyclin D1 pathway, Apoptosis, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
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