Chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological effects of Cynomorium songaricum: An overview
Purpose: To review the chemical constituents, and the pharmacological and toxicological effects of Cynomorium songaricum (C. songaricum) and explore its potentials for further development as an alternative medicine.
Methods: A large number of research articles related to “Cynomorium songaricum” “pharmacological effects”, “toxicological effects” and “chemical composition” in English and Chinese language were retrieved through an extensive literature review using various electronic databases including Medline(1966 - 2017) and EMBASE (1980 - 2017).
Results: Ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of C. songaricum have promising pharmacological activities, due to the presence of various flavonoids, triterpenes and polysaccharides. In addition to promising effects against inflammation, aging, fatigue, viruses and cancer,/ihas a protective effect on the nervous system and regulates hormones and immune functions. Oxidative regulation of hormone levels has a certain correlation with its pharmacological activities, e.g., cognitive functions, but its mechanism is not yet known, indicating the need for further research. Toxicity studies on C. songaricum have shown that it is not genotoxic to animals, but further toxicological studies are required to ascertain its safety in clinical use.
Conclusion: C. songaricum is a biologically important plant which has many proven bioactivities; however, it requires further studies to determine the mechanistic aspects of its pharmacological effects.
Keywords: Cynomorium, Chemical constituents, Inflammation, Aging, Fatigue, Virus, Tumor, Toxicological effect
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