Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of Satureja calamintha (L) Scheel from northern Algeria
Purpose: To undertake the phytochemical screening of Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheel., and evaluate the antimicrobial activities of its volatile compounds.
Methods: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant was performed using standard methods. The extraction of essential oils (EOs) was conducted using steam distillation, while the chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated against ten bacterial and six fungal strains using disc-diffusion assay and poisoned food technique, respectively.
Results: After steam distillation, the extraction yield was 0.54 ± 0.11 %. GC-MS analysis identified approximately 99.99 % of the EOs. The three most abundant compounds identified were l-menthone (32.10 %), neo-menthol (32.07 %) and pulegone (22.35 %). The oils had significant (p < 0.05) antimicrobial activities against the tested bacterial and fungal strains, except Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for bacteria was 0.007 % (v/v) against Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereas for fungi, it was 0.500 % (v/v) against Candida albicans. Moreover, Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria innocua had the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 0.125 % (v/v), in contrast to the lowest fungicidal concentration (MFC) for Candida albicans at 0.500 % (v/v).
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that EOs from Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheel. possess significant antimicrobial activities which might be useful for therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications.
Keywords: Satureja calamintha, Phytochemicals, Essential oils, Antimicrobial activity, Steam distillation