Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, antiulcer and toxicity studies on Desmodium adscendens (Sw) DC Fabaceae leaf and stem
Purpose: To assess the phytochemical profile, toxicity, as well as the antioxidant, and antiulcer activities of the methanol extracts of Desmodium adscendens stem and leaf.
Methods: Maceration procedure was employed in the preparation of the methanol extracts. Phytochemical characterization of the extracts was carried out according to standard methods. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhyldrazy (DPPH l) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Antiulcer activity was investigated using ethanol-induced ulcer model, while toxicity was assessed by observing the mice for mortality.
Results: Phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the stem and leaf. Methanol extracts of the plant exhibited antioxidant activity, with DPPH assay results showing median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 87.59 (leaf), 108.87 (stem), 28.52 (alpha-tocopherol), and 5.05 μg/mL (ascorbic acid). The FRAP assay results for the stem and leaf extracts were 1483 and 1953 μM Fe2+/g dry plant, respectively, while for ascorbic acid it was 3463 μMFe2+/g. The extracts showed significant antiulcer activity, with 14.27 and 15.18 % ulceration inhibition for the leaf extract, and 12.31 and 13.36 % for the stem extract at administered doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Cimetidine and omeprazole (standards) showed ulceration inhibition of 5.53, and 8.26 % at 5.7 and 0.57 mg/kg doses, respectively.
Conclusion: The methanol extracts of Desmodium adscendens stem and leaf offer significant protective activity against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and the activity may be related to their antioxidant effect.
Keywords: Antioxidant, Antiulcer, Toxicity, Desmodium adscendens