Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

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Gender-based clinical study on the association of cognitive impairment with drinking and smoking

Yingying Fu, Xiaoli Chen, Guoping Zhang, Shunda Wang


Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking among the elderly population of a Chinese city with a risk of developing cognitive decline and dementia.

Methods: In this study, 1687 participants from the suburban town of Yanliang in Xi'an Sub-province, Shanxi Province, China in the age group of 60 - 65 years and who have not develop cognitive decline were assessed over a 6-year period. The study involved the evaluation of gender-based effect on alcohol consumption and smoking cigarette and its impact on cognitive functions.

Results: The study observed that smokers have a higher risk of cognitive decline than non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.51; 95 % CI = (1.07 – 2.11). Interestingly, the odds ratio of the smokers among the female subjects was 1.54; 95 % CI (1.02 - 2.49) compared to female non-smokers. Moreover, a dosedependent relationship was observed for those female smoker with higher pack-years compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.003). On the other hand, regular alcohol consumption also increased the possibility of dementia and cognitive decline (odds ratio = 1.69; CI at 95 % = (1.03 – 2.75), hence a dose-dependent relationship was observed between male users (p = 0.042).

Conclusion: The results suggest that alcohol consumption and smoking are linked with cognitive decline among the female subjects in the age group of 60 – 65 years. Thus, the relationship between these factors is characterized by gender difference which may be due to female sex hormones.

Keywords: Cognitive health, Alcohol consumptions, Smoking, Elderly population

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