Isolation, characterization, pharmacological evaluation and in silico modeling of bioactive secondary metabolites from Ziziphus oxyphylla a member of Rhamnaceae family
Purpose: To investigate the pharmacological properties of the medicinally active metabolites of Ziziphus oxyphylla.
Methods: Compound I-IV were isolated form the root of Ziziphus oxyphylla (compound I = Stigmasterol, II = Betulinic acid, III = 1,2,3 benzene triol and IV = 5-Pentadecanoic acid). Various spectroscopic techniques were used to identify and characterize the isolated compounds. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were employed to determine the antioxidant potentials of these compounds. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition potential of the isolated compounds were also evaluated.
Results: Amongst the isolated compounds, compound IV was the most potent antioxidant against DPPH and ABTS free radicals, exhibiting half-maximal concentration (IC50) values of 64 and 65 μg/mL, respectively. All the compounds exhibited good inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. However, stigmasterol was more potent than the other isolated compounds, showing IC50 of 85.10 ± 1.45 and 84.81 ± 1.17, respectively, against AChE and BChE.
Conclusion: Although, all isolated compounds inhibited the selected free radicals (DPPH and ABTS) and cholinesterases, stigmasterol and 5-penatadecanoic acid were more potent than other two compounds. Thus the former can potentially be used to treat oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: Ziziphus oxyphylla, Stigmasterol, 5-Pentadecanoic acid, Antioxidant, Acetyl Cholinesterase, Butyryl cholinesterase
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