Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2021-03-24T07:23:25+00:00 Professor Augustine O Okhamafe Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: small;">We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: small;">We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including biotechnology, cell and molecular&nbsp;biology, drug utilization including adverse drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields). Although primarily devoted to original research papers, we welcome reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance</span>.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Long non-coding RNA KCNQ1 opposite transcript 1 (KCNQ1OT1) regulates cell proliferation and invasion via targeting miR-124-3p in gastric carcinoma 2021-03-17T10:48:18+00:00 Xinying Ye Hongfu Liu Zhen Zeng <p>No Abstract.</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Ginkgolide K potentiates the protective effect of ketamine against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by modulating NF-κB/ERK/JNK signaling pathway 2021-03-17T11:28:49+00:00 Weina Zhu Zhili Zhao Xiongtao Liu Xiumei Ni Xiaoming Lei Xiaoying Li Rui Deng Liyan Zhao <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To investigate the effect of ginkgolide K and ketamine treatments, alone and in combination, on intestinal&nbsp; ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R)-induced injury in rats, as well as the mechanism involved.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Rats were treated with ginkgolide K (GK, 15 mg/kg i.v) and ketamine (KTM, 100 mg/kg i.p.), either alone or in combination 30 min before the induction of intestinal I/R. The effects of GK and KTM were determined by assessing the levels of cytokines in serum, and parameters of oxidative stress and ROS production in the intestinal tissues of I/R rats. Moreover, intestinal mRNA expressions of JNK, ERK, p38 and NF-kB were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: GK and KTM treatments, alone and in combination, reduced cytokine levels in serum and oxidative stress parameters in intestinal tissues, when compared to I/R group of rats. Treatments with GK and KTM, alone and in combination, mitigated the altered mRNA expressions of JNK, ERK, p38 and NF-kB in intestinal tissues of I/R-injured rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results reveal that GK potentiates the protective effect of KTM100 on I/R-induced intestinal injury in rats by regulating the NF-kB/ERK/JNK signaling pathway. Therefore, GK and KTM may find use in the management of I/R</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ginkgolide K, Ketamine, Intestinal injury, Ischemia/Reperfusion, Inflammation </p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Leonurusine hydrochloride promotes osteogenic differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway and expression of Runx2 2021-03-17T11:41:21+00:00 Xiaobo Chen Xiaoyu Lai Xiaoyon Sun Maoyuan Wang Yu Cai <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To investigate the effect of leonurusine hydrochloride (LH) on osteogenic differentiation, and the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin route and runt-associated transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in the process.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Mouse osteogenic precursor cell line MC3T3-E1 was used. The cells were assigned to control and three other groups treated with increasing doses of LH, i.e., 0.1, 1, and 10 μmmol/L. Cellular differentiation was determined in the various groups with respect to mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), number of calcified nodules, Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related genes, viz, 5 (LRP5),<br>β-catenin, GSK-3β, as well as mRNA expressions of related osteogenic differentiation genes, namely. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alpha 1 type I collagen (Col1-α), Run×2, and osteogenic-related transcription factor antibody (Osterix) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The secretion levels of ALP in cells exposed to LH doses of 1 and 10 μmmol/L were significantly increased, relative to control values (p &lt; 0.05). There were marked increases in mRNA levels of LRP5 and β-catenin in cells treated with LH doses of 1 and 10 μmmol/L compared with the control group, while GSK-3β mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than that in control group<br>(p &lt; 0.05). However, the expression levels of ALP, Col1-α, Run×2, Osterix mRNA in cells exposed to LH at doses of 1 and 10 μmmol/L were significantly higher than the corresponding expression levels in control cells (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Leonurusine hydrochloride may promote osteogenic differentiation and bone mineralization via a mechanism involving activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and up-regulation of Run×2 expression.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Leonurusine hydrochloride, Wnt/β-catenin, Runx2, Osteogenic differentiation </p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Downregulation of FOXO4 promotes neuronal survival by mediating oxidative-stress–induced apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury 2021-03-17T11:51:38+00:00 Chunying Deng Peilan Zhang Yun Zhang <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the effect of FOXO4 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CIR) injury and the underlying mechanism.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: An in vitro ischemia/reperfusion (IR) model was achieved using oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). Expression of RNA and protein was determined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Commercial kits were used to measure lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD).<br><strong>Results</strong>: Following OGD/R, FOXO4 mRNA and protein expressions were upregulated in SH-SY5H human neuroblastoma cells. ODG/R reduced cell proliferation and increased the proportion of apoptotic cells, and these effects were inhibited by knockdown of FOXO4 (p &lt; 0.05). Levels of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) were increased after ODG/R and these increases<br>were inhibited by FOXO4 knockdown. ROS content and levels of LDH and MDA were increased after ODG/R and decreased by knockdown of FOXO4 (p &lt; 0.05). Levels of CAT and SOD were reduced after ODG/R, and this reduction was reversed by knockdown of FOXO4 (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results demonstrate that knockdown of FOXO4 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits cellular apoptosis via reduction of oxidative stress after CIR injury, indicating a new therapeutic target for the treatment of CIR injury.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> FOXO4, Neuronal survival, Oxidative stress, Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Mir-23b down-regulates the expression of target gene of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 and increases the sensitivity of cervical cancer stem cells to cisplatin 2021-03-17T12:23:04+00:00 Yongbing Tao Fuyun Mao Weihong Gu Ling Wu Jing Guo Ping Xu <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To study the effect of miR-23b on the expression of the target gene of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), and cisplatin (CDDP) susceptibility of cervical carcinoma stem cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Human cervical cancer cell line Hela cells were cultured in vitro, and miR-23b mimic and negative control were transfected into the cells using lipofectamine method. The growth of the two groups of cells was determined using growth curve method, and their proliferation measured using plate clone formation. The influence of treatments on the sensitivity of the cells to CDDP was assayed using MTT method. The mRNA expression of ALDH1A1 in Hela cells was assayed using real-time quantitative polymerase hain reation (PCR), while its protein expression was assayed by Western blot.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The levels of expressions of ALDH1A1 protein and mRNA in the miR-23b overexpression group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p &lt; 0.05). The sensitivities of Hela cells to CDDP in the ALDH1A1 inhibition group and the control group were dose-dependent to some extent, but cell inhibition in ALDH1A1 inhibition group markedly increased, relative to control when the CDDP dose was 0.1 ppc (p &lt; 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Up-regulating the expression of miR-23b significantly inhibits the growth and proliferation of cervical cancer cells, and increases their sensitivity to CDDP via down-regulation of the expression of the target gene for ALDH1A1. Therefore, during cervical carcinoma treatment, increasing the level of miR-23b may produce a chemotherapeutic effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: MiR-23b, Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1, Cervical cancer, Cisplatin, Sensitivity </p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 promotes repair of bone defect via induction of endochondral ossification 2021-03-17T12:45:00+00:00 Jianjun Wu Changkun Zheng Guiqing Liang <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To study the influence of bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP2/7) on repair of bone defect, and the mechanism involved.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control and transfection groups. The cells were transfected with rBMP2/7 recombinant adenovirus. Cell growth and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were determined in both groups. Rabbit model of femoral bone defect was prepared using standard methods. Male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups, each of which had 10 rabbits: control, gelatin and BMP2/7 groups. Histopathological and xray examinations, and three-point bending flexural test were used to compare the potential of gelatin and BMP2/7 to repair bone defects.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Transfection of BMSCs with rBMP2/7 recombinant adenovirus significantly enhanced their growth (p &lt; 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was also markedly and time-dependently higher in transfection group than in control group (p &lt; 0.05). Rabbits with grade 4 bone healing or above were more in BMP2/7-treated category than in control and gelatin groups. New bone hyperplasia with typical lamellar bone structure, irregular medullary cavity, as well as transition from osteoblast to osteocyte were observed in BMP2/7 group. Moreover, maximum flexural strength and repair were significantly higher in BMP2/7-transfected group than in control.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings indicate that BMP2/7 promotes the repair of bone defect via induction of endochondral ossification in rabbits. Thus, this protein may be useful for the repair of bone defects in humans.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Alkaline phosphatase, Bone lesions, BMP2/7, Endochondral ossification </p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of miR-200c on nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the probable molecular regulatory mechanism involved 2021-03-24T07:23:25+00:00 Sheng Xu Wenxia He <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the effect of micro-ribonucleic acid-200c (miR-200c) on biological function of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and the likely molecular regulatory mechanism involved.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Thirty (30) nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and para-cancerous normal tissues were taken from patients undergoing surgery in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan from September 2018 to January 2020. The expression levels of miR-200c in the two types of tissues were determined. Cells of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HNE1 were cultured to about 70 % growth prior to transfection with blank plasmid, PINI and miR-200c analogs. After 48 h of culture, control group, PINI group, and miR-200c over-expression + PINI group were obtained. The expression levels of PINI and changes in centrosomes in each group were measured, and changes in cell migration in each group were determined using Transwell migration assay.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Compared with para-cancerous normal tissues, the expression level of miR-200c in nasopharyngeal carcinoma was&nbsp; significantly increased (p &lt; 0.01). Compared with the control group, the PINI expression level and cell migration ability in miR-200c overexpression tissue were markedly decreased, while the percentage of extra centrosomes was markedly increased. Compared to miR-200c over-expression tissue, the PINI expression level and cell migration ability in the miR-200c overexpression + PINI group were markedly raised, while the percentage of extra-central somatic cells was significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: MiR-200c may inhibit the migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting the expression of PINI and inhibiting abnormal expansion of centrosomes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MiR-200c, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Biological function, Molecular regulatory mechanism </p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Expression levels of apoptotic factors in a rat model of corticosteroid-induced femoral head necrosis 2021-03-24T07:18:27+00:00 Yongliang Fu Xiaoqiang Han Jiangang Xue Hao Bai Haibiao Sun <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To study the expression levels of apoptotic factors in corticosteroid-mediated femoral head necrosis (FHN) in rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 60) bred adaptively for one week were randomly assigned to control and model groups (30 rats/group). A rat model of corticosteroid-induced femoral head necrosis was established. Then, 3 mL of blood drawn from the inferior vena cava of each rat was used for the assay of the expression levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteoclast differentiation factor (RANKL) in each group using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The caspase-3- and Bcl-2-+ve cells in each group were determined with immunohistochemical method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Relative to control, serum OPG level of model group was significantly decreased, while the RANKL level was markedly raised (p &lt; 0.05). The degree of empty lacunae in the model rats was markedly increased, relative to control. Caspase-3-+ve cells were more numerous in the model group than in control, while Bcl-2-positive cells were markedly decreased compared to control (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Apoptosis occurs in the rat model of femoral head necrosis. Glucocorticoids may regulate the apoptotic process by&nbsp; upregulating caspase-3 and inhibiting Bcl-2. This provides a novel lead for FHN therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Femoral head necrosis, Corticosteroid, Glucocorticoid, Apoptosis</p> 2021-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Serum Sestrin2 and PlGF levels in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and their correlations with the severity of the disease: A case-control study 2021-03-18T10:37:06+00:00 Lijun Li Zhen Sun Shasha Liu Hongyan Cui <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Sestrin2, a metabolic regulator with antioxidant activity, might have some certain predictability for the occurrence and severity of pre-eclampsia (PE). The purpose of this work was to explore the levels of serum Sestrin2 and PlGF in pregnant women with PE and their correlation with the severity index of the disease.<br><strong>Methods</strong>:This was a retrospective case-control study of pregnant women with PE who planned to give birth in our hospital from 05/2017 to 05/2019. Pearson correlation was used to analyze Sestrin2 and PlGF levels with PE severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the predictive value of Sestrin2 and PlGF for PE.<br><strong>Results</strong>: There were 52 women in the control group, 46 in the mild PE group, and 36 in the severe PE group. As the severity of PE increased, the median levels of Sestrin2 increased (8.1, 9.8, and 11.8 ng/ml), and the levels of PlGF decreased (156, 117, and 67 pg/ml) in the three groups of women (all P&lt;0.05).The levels of Sestrin2 and PlGF were strongly correlated with mean arterial pressure,<br>proteinuria, newborn birth weight and gestational weeks at delivery (all P&lt;0.001). Sestrin2 and PlGF had high efficiency of diagnosing PE (cut-off: 8.90 ng/ml, Area Under Curve [AUC]=0.979; cut-off: 122.50 pg/ml, AUC=0.963). Additionally, Sestrin2 and PlGF showed high value of severity prediction (cut-off: 11.15 ng/ml, AUC=0.857; cut-off: 68.50 pg/ml, AUC=0.837).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Sestrin2 and PlGF are correlated with the severity of PE. Both Sestrin2 and PlGF had high value for PE diagnosis and severity prediction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: pre-eclampsia; Sestrin2; placental growth factor; oxidative stress; severity&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Dexmedetomidine alleviates diabetic neuropathic pain by inhibiting microglial activation via regulation of miR618/P2Y12 pathway 2021-03-18T12:13:21+00:00 Jiannan Song Shan Cong Yan Qiao2 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy pain (DNP) in rats and elucidate its mechanism of action.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The DNP rat model was established by injecting STZ (70 mg/kg) following dexmedetomidine treatment. Next BV-2 cells were stimulated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 ng/mL) and then administered 20 μM dexmedetomidine. Blood glucose levels, body weight, and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) were measured once a week in DNP rats. Transfection was performed, and luciferase<br>reporter assay was used to verify microRNA (miR)-337 binding to Rap1A mRNA. Reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the levels of miR-618 and P2Y12 while the protein levels of P2Y12 and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1) were determined by western blot analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Dexmedetomidine treatment significantly increased PWT (p &lt; 0.01) in DNP rats and decreased miR-618 expression (p &lt; 0.01) but increased P2Y12 expression (p &lt; 0.01) in the spinal cord of DNP rats. Luciferase reporter assay data showed that the presumed binding site of miR-618 is located in the 3′-untranslated regions of P2Y12. MiR-618 overexpression significantly reduced P2Y12<br>levels (p &lt; 0.01). Dexmedetomidine upregulated P2Y12 expression (p &lt; 0.01) but decreased IBA-1 expression (p &lt; 0.01).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Dexmedetomidine application attenuates DNP by inhibiting microglial activation via the regulation of miR-618/P2Y12 pathway. This finding provides a potential therapeutic strategy for DNP management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dexmedetomidine, Diabetic neuropathy pain, Paw withdrawal threshold, Calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, MiR-618, P2Y12</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Sevoflurane induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibition of the expression of miRNA155 gene 2021-03-18T12:19:51+00:00 Huaizhao Wang Bin Wang Jingyan Jing Na Li <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To determine the apoptotic effect of sevoflurane on lung cancer cells, and the underlying mechanism of action.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were cultured for 24 h and divided into control group, 1% sevoflurane group and 3% sevoflurane group. The two levels of sevoflurane were provided through a gas monitor connected to each of the sevoflurane groups. The control group was not treated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze A549 cell apoptosis, while qRT-PCR was used for assay of the levels of miRNA155 in A549 cells. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was determined with immunoblotting. The percentage of apoptosis and levels of miRNA155 and Bcl-2 in the two cell lines were compared.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Significant differences in miRNA146a level were seen between the 3 % sevoflurane and control groups at 3 h. There was higher apoptosis in the 3 % sevoflurane group, relative to control, but miRNA155 levels in the 3 % sevoflurane group were generally less than that of the control (p &lt; 0.05). There was lower Bcl-2 content in the 3 % sevoflurane group than in control group (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Sevoflurane exerts strong apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells via a mechanism which may be related to the downregulation of miRNA155, thereby inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. This provides a new direction for research on anti-lung adenocarcinoma drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sevoflurane, Lung cancer cells, Apoptosis, Inhibition, miRNA155, Expression, Induction </p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Swertiamarin exerts anticancer effects on human cervical cancer cells via induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell migration and targeting of MEK-ERK pathway 2021-03-18T12:36:16+00:00 Xinxiang Wang Tao Wang <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the anticancer effects of swertiamarin against taxol- resistant human cervical cancer cells.<br><strong>Method</strong>: Cell viability was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5–diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay while colony survival was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by AO/ETBR staining and western blotting techniques. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7, dicholoro dihydrofluoresceindiacetate (H2DCFDA) staining.<br>Cell migration and invasion were monitored with Transwell chamber assay. Western blotting assay was used to determine the expression levels of proteins of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Swertiamarin induced dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells (p &lt; 0.05). It also suppressed the colony formation potential of HeLa cells, and induced various structural modifications in HeLa cells. Swertiamarin exposure resulted in the formation of earlyapoptotic, late-apoptotic and necrotic cells, and significant modulation of apoptosis-allied proteins. It was observed that the migration and invasion of HeLa cells were potentially suppressed in dose-reliant fashion by swertiamarin. Western blotting results showed that the expressions of p-MEK and p-ERK were markedly reduced, while those of MEK and ERK were unaffected (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Swertiamarin exerts in vitro anticancer activity against cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Thus, it is promising for use in cervical cancer chemotherapy. However, there is need for confirmation of these findings through further in vivo and in vitro investigations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Swertiamarin, Gentianaceae, Triterpene Sapogenin, Cervical cance</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of ligustilide on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury via TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling 2021-03-18T12:56:25+00:00 Xiumin Yang Chencai Qiao Chao Zheng Qingjun Deng <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To investigate the protective effect of ligustilide on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and the signaling pathways involved.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Sepsis-induced AKI was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. Histopathological renal damage was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H &amp; E) staining while creatinine and cytokines were measured using commercial kits. Protein levels were determined by Western blotting.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Vacuoles, dilations, degeneration, and necrosis were observed in CLP mouse kidneys, but these alterations were countered by 20 mg/kg of ligustilide. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were significantly increased in CLP mice compared with control. Furthermore, the serum levels of these indicators in serum were lowered by ligustilide (p &lt; 0.01). The expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) TLR4 and phosphorylated nuclear factor (NF)-κB in CLP mice were also downregulated by ligustilide. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels increased in CLP mice, but were attenuated by ligustilide (p &lt; 0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased in CLP mice but were increased by ligustilide (p &lt; 0.01). Increased expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were observed in CLP mice, and were further enhancced by ligustilide.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Ligustilide exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on sepsis-induced AKI via TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ligustilide, Sepsis, Acute kidney injury, TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway </p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) LncRNA SNHG1 protects the cardiac muscle cells from hypoxia/ re-oxygenation injury in vitro by targeting microRNA-21-5p and miR-30a-5p 2021-03-18T13:34:38+00:00 Youbin Liu Tingting Zang Ying Fan Jinglong Li Meng Chen Anyong Chen Dahao Yang Xue Guan Yong Cao <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for numerous deaths globally. Long noncoding RNA SNHG1 has presented its protective role in cardiomyocytes previously. Herein, we examined the underlying molecular mechanisms of SNHG1 in cardiac muscle cells from hypoxia and re-oxygenation (H/R) in vitro.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: RT-qPCR measured expression of SNHG1, miR-21-5p and miR-30a-5p in rat cardiac muscle cell line HL-1 before and after H/R treatment and cell transfection, which was applied to regulate expression of SNHG1, miR-21-5p and miR-30a-5p for further use. The flow cytometry method was used to compare changes in cellular apoptosis, and cell viability was measured by CCK-8 method.<br>Bioinformatics predicted the bindings ofSNHG1 and miR-21-5p / miR-30a-5p while the luciferase reporter assays further verified this.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The outcomes revealedthat SNHG1 was downregulated and meanwhile miR-21-5p / miR-30a5p was elevated that enhanced apoptosis and reduced cell viability in HL-1 cells. However, overexpressed SNHG1 inhibited cell apoptosis and increased cell viability brought by H/R. In addition, SNHG1 targeted at miR-21-5p/ miR-30a-5p, which contributed to the inter-regulation in between. Furthermore, interactive experiments revealed that upregulation of miR-21-5p/ miR-30a-5p added to the cell apoptosis which was induced by H/R and partially counteracted by the upregulation of SNHG1.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In this study we have demonstrated the protective role of SNHG1 in the moderation of H/R-induced HL-1 apoptosis and viability through suppression of miR-21-5p/miR-30a-5p. This offers new perspective into the molecular interpretation of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic reperfusion injury.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords</strong>: SNHG1; apoptosis; Hypoxia/Re-oxygenation injury;miR-21-5p; miR-30a-5p; Cardiovascular diseases</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Antidiabetic potential of <i>Moringa oleifera</i> Lam. leaf extract in type 2 diabetic rats, and its mechanism of action 2021-03-18T14:21:50+00:00 Tarique Anwer Mohammed M. Safhi Hafiz A. Makeen Saeed Alshahrani Rahimullah Siddiqui SM Sivakumar Emad S. Shaheen Mohammad Firoz Alam <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To explore the antidiabetic potential of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in type 2 diabetic rats, and the underlying mechanisms.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 40 mg/kg was given to high fat diet (HFD)- fed rats to induce type 2 diabetes. M. oleifera leaf extract at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were given to 3 groups of type 2 diabetic rats. The area under curve (AUC) of glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) were calculated using appropriate formulas, whereas levels of glucose,<br>insulin, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) were assayed using ELISA kits.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The leaf extract of <em>M. oleifera</em> significantly reduced the levels of glucose, insulin and cytokines in treated type 2 diabetic groups (p &lt; 0.05). DC group had significantly increased AUC for glucose, whereas the extract-treated groups showed significant&nbsp; decrease in glucose AUC. There was significant decrease in insulin sensitivity parameters, as indicated by increase in HOMA-R and decrease in PPARγ levels in the DC group (p &lt; 0.05). However, treatment with the <em>M. oleifera</em> extract reversed this trend via marked decrease in HOMA-R level and significant rise in PPARγ level. In contrast, the extract had no effect on DPP-IV concentration in diabetic treated groups (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results indicate that <em>M. oleifera</em> leaf extract mitigates hyperglycemia in type 2 DM by modulating hyperinsulinemia, PPARγ and inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the extract is a potential source of drug for the management of type 2 DM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Moringa oleifera, Diabetes mellitus</em>, Streptozotocin, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, Dipeptidyl peptidase IV</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) <i>In vitro</i> antiplasmodial, cytotoxic and antioxidant effects, and phytochemical constituents of eleven plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2021-03-18T14:46:24+00:00 Olorunfemi Abraham Eseyin Iweh Emmanuel Etim Emmanuel E. Attih Ekarika Johnson Aniefiok Sunday Udobre Aniekan Stephen Ebong Dennis Zofou <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the antiplasmodial effects of eleven plants (<em>Bombax buonopozense, Carica </em><em>papaya, Anthocleista djalonensis, Milicia excelsa, Heterotis rotundifolia, Homalim letestui,</em> <em>Starchystarpheta cayennnensis, Ocimum gratissimum, Cleistopholis patens, Chromolaena odorata</em> and <em>Hippocratea africana</em>) reportedly used in the treatment of malaria in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Phytochemical analysis was done by standard methods, while in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation was carried out using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquineresistant strains using lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay.&nbsp; Cytotoxicity test was undertaken by MTT assay on LLC-MK2 cells and the concentration killing 50 % of the cells (CC50) was calculated.<br>Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: <em>Milicia excelsa, Heterotis rotundifolia </em>and<em> Chromolaena odorata</em> had moderate antiplasmodial activity. <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> and <em>Hippocratea africana</em> were weakly active. Milicia excelsa showed a considerable level of cytotoxicity, while <em>Bombax buonopozense</em> exhibited moderate cytotoxicity. <em>Bombax buonopozense</em> (95.3 %) and <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> (92.0 %) exhibited high DPPH scavenging<br>effect comparable to Vitamin C (98.7 %). There was a significant correlation (p &lt; 0.05) between DPPH inhibition and the total phenolic contents of the eleven plants studied (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.6616), between DPPH inhibition and flavonoids (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.3553), between antiplasmodial activity and saponin content (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.3992), and between the two antiplasmodial evaluation assay methods (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.614).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this work provide some justification for the use of <em>Milicia excelsa, Heterotis </em><em>rotundifolia, Chromolaena odorata, Ocimum gratissimum</em> and<em> Hippocratea africana</em> in the treatment of malaria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antiplasmodial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity, Phytochemicals, Antimalaria</p> 2021-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Protective effect of leaf extract of <i>Ficus carica L.</i> against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic toxicity in mice and HepG2 cell line 2021-03-19T08:21:27+00:00 Syeda Hira Muhammad Gulfraz S.M. Saqlan Naqvi Rehmat Ullah Qureshi Hina Gul <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective effects of <em>Ficus carica.</em><br><strong>Methods</strong>: The methanol leaf extract of Ficus carica L was further fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. For in vivo study, male albino mice were divided into twelve groups. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the mice using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The extract of <em>F</em>. <em>carica</em> and its fractions were administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Silymarin was used as standard<br>hepatoprotective drug. The protective effects of the extract and fractions were determined via assay of biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The histopathology of the liver was also studied. Moreover, the in vitro hepatoprotective effect of the extract and fractions against CCl4-induced damage was determined in HepG2 cell line.<br><strong>Results</strong>: There were significant increases in the serum levels of liver biomarkers in CCl4-treated group, whereas treatments with plant extract and fractions significantly reduced the levels of these parameters (p &lt; 0.05). In addition, results from histopathology revealed evidence of protective effect of <em>Ficus carica </em>through reversal of CCl4-induced decreases in the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These results indicate that methanol leaf extract of Ficus carica L. and its fractions exert significant and dose-dependent hepatoprotective effects in vivo and in vitro.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Ficus carica</em>, Hepatoprotection, Carbon tetrachloride, Liver biomarkers</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) <i>Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata)</i> whole plant extract enhances rat muscle mass and sperm production by increasing the activity of NO-cGMP pathway and serum testosterone 2021-03-19T08:39:37+00:00 SangJoon Mo Eun Young Kim Sun-Hyang Choi Sanghyun Lee Seong Lee Jin Chul Ahn <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To analyze the effects of an aqueous extract of Sericea lespedeza (SL) on rat male menopause.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Levels of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cGMP, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the penile corpus cavernosum of the rats were evaluated using appropriate kits. Serum levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Total and motile sperms were counted on a hemocytometer. Histological changes in rat testis and epididymis were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The levels of NO, NOS, and cGMP (but not PGE2) increased in a dose-dependent manner (p&lt; 0.05) upon administration of an aqueous extract of SL (AESL), while levels of DHT, 17β-HSD, and testosterone increased in the group administered with 300 mg/kg of AESL. Epididymal sperm count increased by 24 % in such rats compared to controls (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The aqueous extract of SL improves sperm count and muscle mass in rats by increasing the levels of NO, NOS, cGMP and testosterone. Thus, SL extract can potentially be developed as an alternative therapeutic agent for clinical management of TDS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> NO-cGMP, Testosterone, Hormones, Sperm count, Muscle mass, <em>Sericea lespedeza, Lespedeza cuneata</em></p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effect of <i>Hedyotis diffusa Willd</i> extract on gouty arthritis in rats 2021-03-19T09:10:14+00:00 LanFang Wang Fang OuYang Yan Ma Rui Sun ShiWei Tan Liu Xiao QuanWei Yang QuanWei Yang <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the effect of Hedyotis diffusa Willd extract (HDWE) on gouty arthritis in rats.<br><strong>Method</strong>: Monosodium urate (MSU) crystal was injected into the ankle joint of rats to establish a rat model of gouty arthritis. HDWE (4.8, 9.6 and 19.2 g/kg) was administered to the rats treated with MSU crystals. The walking behavior of the rats was observed daily, and the gait score was calculated to evaluate the Oswestry disability index of rats. Levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in lavage fluid of articular<br>cavities were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The synovial tissues of joint of control, model and 19.2 g/kg HDWE group rats were obtained and NLRP3 inflammasome was analysed by Western blot.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that HDWE ameliorated the symptoms of gouty arthritis and gait score in rats significantly (p &lt; 0.05). Further pharmacological experiments showed that all doses of HDWE decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α (p &lt; 0.05), and inhibited NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, IL-1β and IL-18 protein expressions of the lavage fluid of articular cavities in MSU crystal-treated rats (p &lt; 0.01).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results indicate that HDWE exhibits a significant effect in ameliorating gouty arthritis via inhibition NLRP3&nbsp; inflammasome, and thus is a potential new drug choice for the treatment of gouty arthritis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Hedyotis diffusa</em>, Caspase, Gouty arthritis, Inflammatory cytokines, NLRP3 inflammasom </p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Protective effect of Wuling mycelia, alone and in combination with valproic acid, on pentylenetetrazolinduced epilepsy in rats 2021-03-19T09:27:34+00:00 Liming Wei Boqun Cao Chen Jia Rui Zhang Yuting Liu Yujun Qiao <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To determine the inhibitory effects of Wuling mycelia, alone and in combination with valproic acid (VPA) on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizure in rats, and their protective effects on cognitive impairment.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (sham), model, <em>Wuling mycelia,</em> VPA and combination groups. Rats in <em>Wuling mycelia</em> group were given oral <em>Wuling mycelia</em> alone at a dose of 594 mg/kg, while those in VPA group were given oral VPA alone at a dose of 189 mg/kg. In the combination group, rats received oral VPA at a dose of 189 mg/kg co-administered with Wuling mycelia at a dose of 594 mg/kg. One hour after the treatments, the control group was injected with physiological saline intraperitoneally, while the other four groups were injected with PTZ solution once a day for 28 days. Subsequently, seizure intensity, cognitive impairment, neuronal loss and hippocampal expressions of IL-1β, NF-ĸB/p65 and TLR4 were determine in all groups.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Combined use of <em>Wuling mycelium</em> and VPA significantly reduced the frequency and the grade of seizures (p &lt;0.01), and also decreased the degree of cognitive impairment (p &lt;0.05). There were marked increases in neuronal damage and hippocampal&nbsp; expression levels of NF-ĸB/p65, TLR4 and IL1β (inflammatory cytokines) in the model group (p &lt; 0.05). However, these changes were&nbsp; reversed in the combination treatment group (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Wuling mycelia</em> is a potentially effective adjunct drug for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. The underlying mechanism might involve downregulations of NF-ĸB/p65, TLR4 and IL-1β.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Wuling mycelia</em>, Refractory epilepsy, Seizure, Traditional Chinese medicine, Hippocampal area, HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB&nbsp; signalling pathway, IL-1β, NF-ĸB/p65, TLR4 </p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Synthesis and characterization of some new Schiff base derivatives of gabapentin, and assessment of their antibacterial, antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities 2021-03-19T09:36:31+00:00 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem Mohsin Abbas Khan Irshad Ahmad Naveed Aslam Umair Khurshid <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To synthesize and characterize some new gabapentin Schiff base derivatives, and to assess their antibacterial, antioxidant and antiepileptic activities.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Four Schiff base derivatives of gabapentin, termed G1, G2, G3 and G4, were synthesized by condensation with benzoin, vanillin, acetophenone, and benzophenone, respectively. Their chemical identities were established by FTIR, 1 H NMR and 13C NMR techniques. The new compounds were screened for antibacterial activity using agar well method, antioxidant activity by DPPH assay, and anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in mice.<br><strong>Results:</strong> All the compounds showed antibacterial activity against the test strains to variable degrees, while the parent drug did not exhibit antibacterial activity. The zones of inhibition of compound G2 against Micrococcus luteus (36.2 ± 1.0 mm) and Serratia marcescens (28.2 ± 1.0 mm), and of compound G4 against <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em> (36.8 ± 1.0 mm) were larger compared to the<br>standard drug, doxycycline, exhibiting zones of inhibition 28.2 ± 1.3, 28.2 ± 0.9 and 20.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. In addition, compounds G1 and G2 possessed significantly greater (p &lt; 0.05) radical scavenging activity (82.3 ± 1.8 and 92.3 ± 2.2 %, respectively) than the precursor drug, gabapentin (63.2± 2.6 %). The seizure scores for compounds G1 (0.7 ± 0.06) and G2 (0.9 ± 0.07) were comparable<br>(p ˃ 0.05) with gabapentin (0.8 ± 0.06), while compounds G3 and G4 were less active (p &lt; 0.05) than gabapentin.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Compounds G1 and G2 exhibit good antibacterial and antioxidant activities while retaining the anticonvulsant activity of the parent drug, gabapentin, thus making them suitable candidates for further development for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies associated with bacterial infections.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gabapentin, Antibacterial, Seizures, Antioxidant, Anticonvulsant</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Analysis of triterpenoids, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids in the flowers, leaves, roots, and stems of white bitter melon (Cucurbitaceae, <i>Momordica charantia</i>) 2021-03-19T09:46:19+00:00 Do Manh Cuong Ramaraj Sathasivam Chang Ha Park Hyeon Ji Yeo Ye Eun Park Jae Kwang Kim Sang Un Park <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the contents of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and phenylpropanoids in different parts of white bitter melon.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: We evaluated the accumulation of 2 triterpenoids, 10 carotenoids, and 11 phenylpropanoids in different parts of white bitter melon, including fruits at four different developmental stages using HPLC.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Charantin, lutein, and rutin were the main triterpenoids, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids, respectively. The accumulation of triterpenoids (momordicine and charantin), carotenoids (antheraxanthin, lutein, violaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene), and phenylpropanoids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, and trans-cinnamic acid) was high in<br>the leaves and/or flowers, which are exposed to direct sunlight, but low in the roots.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Most of the analyzed components were accumulated at high levels in the leaves and/or flowers. These results will help exploit the compounds in various parts of white bitter melon that are beneficial for human health.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Momordica charantia</em>, Bitter melon, Triterpenoid, Carotenoid, Phenylpropanoid</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A nationwide study on the knowledge, awareness, and practices towards COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia 2021-03-19T09:52:19+00:00 Yaser M. Alahmadi Sultan S. Al Thagfan <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate public knowledge, awareness and practice regarding COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, with a 16-item self-administered questionnaire. Data was collected using social media as the platform a day after the lockdown commenced in Saudi Arabia and data collection lasted from March 25 to April 25, 2020. Chi-square test was performed to determine the association between the variables.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that 96 % (n = 1505) of adults were aware of the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and 57.9 % (n = 908) correctly identified that a stuffy nose and sneezing were less common in persons infected with the virus. A majority (95.4 %, n = 1495) agreed that there was no established therapeutic treatment for COVID-19. Further, 91.7 % (n = 1437) agreed that the virus could spread via respiratory droplets and only 46.2 % (n = 724) acknowledged that wearing face mask helped prevent transmission. The results also showed that 83.2 % (n = 1299) of the participants thought that visiting crowded places increased the likelihood of transmission.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The findings of this study reveal that adults in Saudi Arabia are cognizant of COVID-19 and maintained good attitudes and practices regarding it. Furthermore, health education programs aimed at improving awareness of the disease and appropriate control measures will be beneficial in curbing the virus pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Saudi Arabia, Coronavirus, Pandemic, COVID-19, Flu, Symptoms</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Assessment of awareness and satisfaction of online renewal of practising license among pharmacists in Nigeria 2021-03-19T10:00:53+00:00 Ukamaka G. Okafor Abubakar Ibrahim Jatau Olukemi Alabi Elijah N.A. Mohammed <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To assess the awareness and satisfaction of online renewal of practice licence among pharmacists in Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study among pharmacists in Nigeria. Participants were recruited through; online (via social media platforms) or in person at Pharmacists Council of Nigeria (PCN) office during application for renewal of license.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 878 participants completed the survey. Of this, 97.4 and 79.9 % were aware and satisfied with the online process, respectively. The respondents rated the process as excellent (19.1 %), fair (22.2 %), good (55.0 %) and poor (3.6 %). Most of the reported challenges included linking payment of association dues with license renewal, poor customer service and password retrieval.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The level of awareness and satisfaction of the online renewal of annual licence among pharmacists in Nigeria is high. Measures are still needed to improve the online application process.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pharmacists Council, Online, Licence, Pharmacist, Practice </p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Assessment of the relationship between depression and treatment compliance in chronically-ill patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 2021-03-19T10:17:41+00:00 Ameen Mosleh Almohammadi Somayah Saeed Bawazeer Joud Jamal Balkhair Aroub Adel Rajab <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To find the relationship between depression, treatment adherence and lifestyle changes in<br>chronically-ill patients residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was used to<br>collect data from patients of multi-healthcare centers located in Jeddah. The questionnaire aimed to<br>collect the information regarding patients’ levels of medication compliance, patients’ capacity to cope<br>with the disease and adherence to medication, along with their depression level.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Of the overall sample size of 439 patients, 43.1 % were suffering from hypertension, 37.8 %<br>were diabetic and 33.7 % had hyperlipidemia. Besides, total scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9<br>(PHQ-9) showed that approximately 5 % patients were severely depressed, 8 % had moderately severe<br>depression, 27 % had moderate depression, and 60 % had mild depression. Compliance scale data<br>revealed that 38 % patients showed low compliance, 51 % showed partial compliance, and 11 %<br>showed high compliance. Also, a significant inverse relationship between depression and compliance<br>scales (rs = -0.221, p = 0.004) was observed.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results show an inverse association between depression and medication adherence<br>in patients with chronic disease in Jeddah. Therefore, clinicians are advised to assess the level of<br>depression in chronically-ill patients in order to improve their adherence to medicine.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chronic illness, Depression, Medication adherence, Treatment compliance</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Relationship between adherence to anti-diabetic medication and depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in three selected Chinese hospitals 2021-03-19T10:24:43+00:00 Haidong Luo Yin Lin Jia Li Weiguo Xu <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the relationship between adherence to anti-diabetic medication and depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in three hospitals in Chinese.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This research utilized a quantitative and descriptive design, and included 200 diabetic patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for recruitment through a convenient sampling technique. The study applied Beck’s depression inventory II scale for assessment of depression, and a questionnaire for adherence to anti-diabetic medication.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 64 (32 %) participants had diabetes for 6 to 10 years. There was a high level of adherence to anti-diabetic medication in 96 patients (48 %); 74 participants (37 %) had moderate adherence to anti-diabetic medication, while 30 patients (15 %) had low adherence. A majority of the patients (181, 90.5 %) had no depression. Six (6) patients (3 %) had mild mood disturbance, 2 patients (1 %) had borderline clinical depression, while 11patients (5.5 %) experienced moderate depression.<br>Adherence to anti-diabetic medication was not associated with depression (p = 0.068). However, depression was associated with age ˃ 50 years (p = 0.041), female sex (p = 0.043), long duration of illness (&gt; 5-years) (p = 0.048), and presence of one or more comorbidities (p = 0.049).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There was no association between adherence to anti-diabetic medication and depression among diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adherence to anti-diabetic medication, Beck’s depression inventory II, Depression, Diabetes mellitus</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Utilization of adjusted body weight for dosing unfractionated heparin in obese patients with venous thromboembolism: A retrospective matched cohort study 2021-03-19T10:30:48+00:00 Mohammed Alessa Jawaher Gramish Hind Almodaimegh Moteb A. Khobrani Lori Hornsby Abdullah A. Alhifany <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the effectiveness of adjusted body weight (AjBW)-based dosing of unfractionated heparin (UFH) in obese patients vis a vis actual body weight (ABW)-based dosing in non-obese patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective chart review was conducted for obese and non-obese patients initiated on UFH for treating VTE from September 2013 to December 2014. Patients were excluded from the study if they were under 18 years old, developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia during treatment, received thrombolytic therapy prior to UFH, or received UFH at a dose that did not follow the institution’s protocol. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy of dosing UFH based on AjBW in achieving a therapeutic activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) within the first 24 h in obese patients, in comparison to the standard ABW-dosing for non-obese.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 57 patients included in the study, 27 patients (47.4 %) were obese, and 30 patients (52.6 %) were non-obese; 16 (59.25 %) of the obese patients achieved a therapeutic aPTT within the first 24 h of AjBW-based dosed UFH, while 18 (60 %) of the non-obese patients achieved a therapeutic aPTT within the first 24 h of ABW-based dosed UFH (p = 0.45).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: AjBW-based dosing of UFH in obese patients demonstrates comparable efficacy to ABWbased dosing in non-obese patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Obesity, Unfractionated heparin, Venous thromboembolism, Adjusted body weight, Ideal body weight</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Assessment of medication prescription errors and their contributory factors in major cities of Punjab Province, Pakistan: A cross-sectional survey 2021-03-19T10:41:47+00:00 Abdul Majeed Iltaf Hussain Muqarrab Akbar Muhammad O. Chaudhry Imran Imran Hamid Saeed Furqan K. Hashmi Omama Siddique Shehnoor Tahir Sana Bilal Fazila Ashraf Mehvish Ayaz Muhammad F. Rasool <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the prescription errors and their contributory factors in Punjab, Pakistan.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 major cities of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1,184 prescriptions were collected from patients using a convenient sampling method from homes, pharmacies, clinics, and hospitals. The data were presented in frequency and percentage using descriptive statistics. To determine the association between the variables assessed, Chi-square (2) test was used.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 1,184 prescriptions were analyzed; 432 of them (36.5 %) were from prescribers who are graduate degree holders, and 752 (63.5 %) from prescribers who are post-graduate degree holders. The most commonly missing parameters in the prescriptions were the age of the patients (835 representing 29.4 %), signatures of the prescribers (755 representing 26.5 %), and prefix (622 representing 21.9 %). The number of prescription errors was significantly correlated to prescriber qualification (p = 0.001). The prescription errors were more common in age groups of prescribers: 21 - 30 years (654 representing 23.0 %), and 31 - 40 years (1,012 representing 35.6 %) (p = 0.001). The higher number of prescription errors by post-graduate prescribers working in teaching hospitals can be attributed to the higher patient load and lack of continuing medical education programs for the prescribers.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The government should take necessary measures for the implementation of electronic prescribing systems, and devise mechanisms for the uniform distribution of patient load amongst the prescribers working in different hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Prescription error, Prescribers, Patient load, Continuing medical education, Electronic prescribing</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Prescription pattern of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among community patients with musculoskeletal and co-morbid conditions: A crosssectional study from an Iraqi province 2021-03-19T10:53:17+00:00 Anmar Al-Taie Ali N. Hussein Zahraa Albasry <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the pattern of prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) co-prescription with NSAIDs in a sample of patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders with and without co-morbid cardiovascular (CV) disease conditions in Baghdad Province, Iraq.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to assess the clinical characteristics of patients that used NSAIDs alone or with PPIs for the treatment of different musculoskeletal disorders with and without co-morbid cardiovascular (CV) disease conditions.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 102 participants were enrolled in the study. More than half of the participants had comorbid disease conditions (53.9 %), particularly hypertension (47.1 %). Nearly a quarter of the participants with CV disease conditions used non-selective NSAIDs (25.5 %). The majority of NSAIDs intake were orally administered for more than one month (79.4 %). Physicians were the major source for patient education about the risk of NSAIDs-associated complications according to 59.6 % of the participants. The majority of participants reported non-adherence to the prescribed PPIs (86.5 %). There was a statistically significant difference between the participants that used NSAIDs alone, and those with PPI co-prescription within the age group of 31 - 60 years (p &lt; 0.0001) and for a duration of more than one month for NSAIDs administration (p &lt; 0.0001).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There is improper use of NSAIDs, particularly the non-selective agents, among patients with co-morbid cardiovascular disease conditions, as well as poor medication adherence and improper co-prescription of PPIs. This requires periodic revision for long-term intake of NSAIDs, while applying more care to high-risk patients regarding co-prescription of NSAIDs with PPIs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cardiovascular, Co-morbidity, Gastrointestinal complications, NSAIDs, Proton-pump inhibitors</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A comparative study of the analgesic effects of sevoflurane and propofol in children following otolaryngology surgical procedures: A pilot study 2021-03-19T11:17:47+00:00 Yanwu Wang Fan Yao Yulong Lin Shugen Xiao <p>Purpose: To determine the analgesic effects of sevoflurane (Sev) and propofol (Pro) in children who<br>underwent otolaryngology surgical procedures, and their post-operative conditions.<br>Methods: A total of 62 (ASA I or ASA II) pre-medicated children who were about to undergo<br>otolaryngology surgical procedures were chosen and divided equally into Sev and Pro groups, with 31<br>patients per group. During the surgical procedure, Sev was administered via a mask, while Pro was<br>given i.v. Each anesthesia was followed with fentanyl administration.<br>Results: Pain scores such as verbal rating scale (VRS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were slightly<br>lower in Sev group than in Pro group. However, post-operative conditions such as emergence delirium<br>(ED) and emergence agitation (EA) were significantly elevated in Sev group, when compared to Pro<br>group (p &lt; 0.05). In addition, patients in Sev group had higher levels of hemodynamic parameters<br>(blood pressure), and much higher number of adverse events than those in Pro group. Thus, the overall<br>satisfaction score and recovery characteristics, i.e., hospitalization time and recovery were slightly<br>better in Pro-anesthetized children than in those given Sev.<br>Conclusion: These results suggest that except for pain score, Pro-anesthetized children fared better in<br>terms of speedy recovery and reduced adverse effects than those given Pro. Thus, Pro may be<br>recommended as general anaesthetic for children undergoing otolaryngology surgical procedures.<br>Keywords: Sevoflurane, Propofol, Pain score, Emergence agitation, Otolaryngology</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)