Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research <p align="justify"><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: small;">We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: small;">We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines (including biotechnology, cell and molecular&nbsp;biology, drug utilization including adverse drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields). Although primarily devoted to original research papers, we welcome reviews on current topics of special interest and relevance</span>.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> and <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US <p><span><span>Submission of a manuscript to this journal is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.</span></span></p><p><span><span>All authors named in each manuscript would be required to sign a form (to be supplied by the Editor) so that they may retain their copyright in the article but to assign to us (the Publishers) and its licensees in perpetuity, in all forms, formats and media (whether known or created in the future) to (i) publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the contribution, (ii) translate the contribution into other languages, create adaptations, reprints, include within collections and create summaries, extracts and/or abstracts of the contribution, (iii) create any other derivative works(s) based on the contribution, (iv) to exploit all subsidiary rights in the contribution, (v) the inclusion of electronic links from the contribution to third party material where-ever it may be located, and (vi) license any thrid party to do any or all of the above.</span></span></p> (Professor Augustine O Okhamafe) (Patrick Om Erah) Mon, 05 Feb 2024 13:47:49 +0000 OJS 60 Mir-186 inhibits the proliferation and growth of multiple myeloma cells by targeting Jagged-1 expression <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the suppressive influence of mir-186 on multiplication and growth of multiple myeloma (MM), as well as the processes involved.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The U266 cells were divided into control, mir-186 overexpression, and inhibition groups. The latter two were transfected with&nbsp; mir-186 agent and antagonist, respectively. Cell viability, colony formation potential, cell cycle ratio, and Jagged-1 mRNA and protein&nbsp; levels were measured using various assays.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Cell growth increased over time in all groups. However, mir-186 overexpression cells showed significantly decreased growth and&nbsp; colony formation capacity, relative to control, while the mir-186 inhibition cells showed significantly higher growth and colony formation&nbsp; capacity. The study revealed a higher proportion of G0/G1 stage cells and lower proportion of S-phase cells in mir-186 overexpression cells than in control cells. The opposite effect was seen in mir-186 inhibition cells. Jagged-1 protein and mRNA levels were significantly&nbsp; lower in mir-186 overexpression cells and higher in mir-186 inhibition cells than in control group. The Jagged-1 knockout group showed&nbsp; significantly higher Jagged-1 mRNA and protein levels than both the control and mir-186 overexpression groups (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: When overexpressed, mir-186 inhibits the growth of multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting cell colony-formation capacity and&nbsp; by regulating cell cycle through mir-186-induced regulation of the expression of Jagged-1. there is need for more research to confirm the&nbsp; clinical benefits of therapies based on these findings.</p> Jinfeng Dong, Xiaoqiang Zheng Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MiR-25 enhances the proliferation, invasion and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through targeted regulation of RAGE expression <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the effect of microRNA-25 (miR-25) on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma&nbsp; cells, and the involvement of targeted regulation of late glycation end product receptor (RAGE) in the process.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Three groups of cells comprising; routinely cultured nasopharyngeal normal epithelial cell line NP69 without any treatment&nbsp; (blank control group), untreated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line 5-8F, also cultured routinely (nasopharyngeal carcinoma&nbsp; group) and 5-8F human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells infected with lentiviral vectors for miR-25 gene knockdown and cultured after&nbsp; stable transduction (miR-25 knockdown group). Cell proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 assay, while Western blot assay and&nbsp; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to measure protein and mRNA expression levels of relevant genes. Transwell&nbsp; assay was utilized to evaluate cell migration and invasion.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The miR-25 expression level was significantly increased in nasopharyngeal carcinoma group (p &lt; 0.05). Cell proliferation,&nbsp; migration, and invasion rates in miR-25 knockdown group were lower than those in nasopharyngeal carcinoma group (p &lt; 0.05).&nbsp; Apoptosis rate of cells and levels of apoptotic proteins were significantly elevated, whereas bcl-2 level was significantly reduced in miR-25&nbsp; knockdown group when compared to nasopharyngeal carcinoma group (p &lt; 0.05). Protein expression levels of RAGE and S100P was&nbsp; significantly increased in nasopharyngeal carcinoma group, but significantly down-regulated in miR-25 knockdown group (p &lt; 0.05).&nbsp; <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Expression of miR-25 increases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Suppression of miR25 results in decreased viability of&nbsp; nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while enhancing apoptosis. The mechanism&nbsp; underlying these effects was associated with modulation of protein expressions of RAGE and S100P. Targeted regulation of late glycation&nbsp; end-product receptors hold promising potential as prospective biomarker for therapeutic interventions targeting specific cancers.</p> Yang Jing, Qingxia Zhao, Yujuan Wang, Pei Lin Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Honokiol inhibits gallbladder cancer proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transformation by suppressing TMPRSS4-induced PI3K/AKT activation <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the role of TMPRSS4 in gallbladder cancer (GBC).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were used to evaluate the&nbsp; expression of genes, while CCK-8 kit and foci formation assay were used to assess cell growth in GBC-SD and non-obliterative zone (NOZ)&nbsp; cell lines. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, while cell migration and cell invasion were determined by Transwell assay in GBCSD and NOZ cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: TMPRSS4 was highly expressed in GBC cells, compared to normal cell, HIBEC. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 enhanced cell viability&nbsp; and 2D foci formation in GBC-SD (stratified) and NOZ; however, knockdown of TMPRSS4 reduced cell proliferation and colony formation&nbsp; in the cell lines (p &lt; 0.05). TMPRSS4 deficiency increased cell apoptosis but its reinforced expression decreased cell apoptosis in GBC cell&nbsp; lines (p &lt; 0.05). Moreover, TMPRSS4 positively regulated cell invasion and migration in GBC cells by upregulating TWIST1, vimentin and N- cadherin. TMPRSS4 also regulated the activation of PI3K/AKT signal pathway. Furthermore, honokiol inhibited gallbladder cancer&nbsp; proliferation and migration, and induced cell apoptosis by suppressing TMPRSS4-induced PI3K/AKT activation (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; TMPRSS4 plays an important role in regulating cell growth, apoptosis and metastasis of gallbladder cancer cells (GBC). Thus, TMPRSS4&nbsp; might be a new biomarker in gallbladder cancer.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Conglin Lin, Congren Wang, Mingzhu Li, Zhibing Cai Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Knockdown of TRIP13 inhibits gastric cancer stemness and cisplatin resistance by regulating FBXW7/ENO1 axis <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To explore the role of thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) in gastric cancer (GC) and the associated mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: TRIP13 expression in GC was found in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and siTRIP13 was transfected in GC cells in order to generate cell lines with low TRIP13 expression. Cell proliferation was determined by colony formation assay, while cell migration&nbsp; and invasion were evaluated by scratch test and Transwell assay, respectively. Sphere formation assay was used to assess cell stemness&nbsp; characteristics whereas half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8). F-box and WD repeat&nbsp; domain containing 7 (FBXW7) and enolase 1 (ENO1) expression were determined by western-blot assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: TRIP13 was significantly expressed in GC based on TCGA database (p &lt; 0.001) and high expression predicted poor prognosis in&nbsp; GC patients (p &lt; 0.05). Based on the findings of the cell function assay, si-TRIP13 inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and&nbsp; stemness of GC cells (p &lt; 0.001) and decreased the IC<sub>50</sub> value. Mechanically, knockdown of TRIP13 decreased ENO1 expression level by&nbsp; stabilizing FBXW7.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: TRIP13 functions as an oncogene in GC and stimulates growth and stemness via FBXW7/ENO1 pathway in&nbsp; GC. Thus, a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer is provided by this study.</p> Jiayun Liu, Che Chen, Guannan Wu, Xuequan Yao, Fukun Liu, Shenlin Liu Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MiR-128-3p inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via EMT <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the effect of overexpressing miR-128-3p on the migration, invasion, and proliferation of human nasopharyngeal&nbsp; cancer cells, and associated pathways.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and clone creation tests were used to investigate the effect of miR-128-3p inhibitor on the growth of&nbsp; C666-1 cells. The inhibitor control and miR-128-3p inhibitor were transfected into human nasopharyngeal cancer cells (C666-1) and&nbsp; allowed to incubate for 48 h. Cell migration and invasion assays were conducted using Transwell and Scratch assays. Cell cycle was assessed using propidium iodide (PI) single-staining method, while expression of miR-128-3p was evaluated by quantitative reverse&nbsp; transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression levels of vimentin, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin were determined by&nbsp; Western blot.<br><strong>Results</strong>: MiR-128-3p inhibitor transfection in C666-1 cells significantly increased cell proliferation, cell viability, and clonal proliferation,&nbsp; and also significantly reduced miR-128-3p expression levels, and enhanced cell migration and invasion. In C666-1 cells, inhibition of&nbsp; miR-128-3p induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: MiR-128-3p inhibits nasopharyngeal cancer cells from proliferating, migrating, and invading by regulating epithelial&nbsp;&nbsp; mesenchymal transition. MiR-128-3p may therefore be a viable therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal cancer. Future studies are&nbsp; required&nbsp; to yield pertinent data in support of this hypothesis.&nbsp;</p> Jingli Li, Hui Wang Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Small molecule inhibitor azd1480 reverses radiotherapy resistance in NSCLC by targeting JAK2/STAT3 pathway <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the effect of small molecule inhibitor AZD1480 on radiotherapy resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),&nbsp; and the involvement of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in the process.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Radiation-resistant cell lines A549-20F, A549-30F, A549-40F and H460, H46040F, H460- 40F, and H460-40F were established, and&nbsp; expressions of proteins related to JAK/STAT pathway, mitogen-activated protein (MAPK) pathway and transforming growth factor-β (TGF- β) were assayed. The JAK2V617FH460 overexpression cell line and JAK2H460 cell line were established, and expressions of ATGL and&nbsp; CPT1A were compared. The H460 cells and H460-40F cells were treated with JAK2 small molecule inhibitor AZD1480, and the expressions&nbsp; of ATGL, CPT1A and JAK2/STAT3 pathway-related proteins were compared. The survival and proliferation of cell lines were also compared.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The JAK/STAT pathway was significantly enriched, and MAPK and TGF-β were up-regulated. In H460 cells, JAK2/STAT3&nbsp; route was obvious, suggesting that radiotherapy activated JAK2/STAT3 pathway in NSCLC cells. Significant down-regulations of p- JAK2Y1007, JAK2, p-STAT3s727, STAT3, ATGL and CPT1A proteins expressions were seen in H460 + AZD1480 group, relative to H460 group, but protein levels of p-JAK2Y1007, JAK2, p-STAT3s727, STAT3, ATGL and CPT1A were significantly lower in H460-40F + AZD1480 group than&nbsp; in H460-40F group (p &lt; 0.05). The survival and proliferation rates were significantly lower in A549 + AZD1480 group than in A549 and&nbsp; A549-40F groups (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Radiotherapy up-regulates the expressions of ATGL and CPT1A in NSCLC cells by activating the&nbsp; JAK2/STAT3 pathway, while AZD1480, a small molecule inhibitor, reverses the radiation resistance of NSCLC by targeting JAK2/STAT3&nbsp; pathway and key enzymes of lipid metabolism. Therefore, azd1480 may enhance clinical treatment efficacy in NSCLC patients by reducing&nbsp; radiation resistance.&nbsp;</p> Ying Mao, Yang Yao, Li Liu Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement of the antitumor effect of cisplatin and ginsenoside Rg3 by encapsulation in polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To develop dual-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with two chemotherapeutic agents, i.e., cisplatin (DDP) and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3(Rg3), and to evaluate the drug release profiles and synergistic inhibitory effects of the nanoparticles on lung cancer A549 cells.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The dual-laden PLGA NPs were synthesized using modified emulsion and solvent vaporization procedures. Drug loading (DL) and efficacy of co-encapsulation (EE) were determined with a modification of column elution technique. The cytotoxic and inhibitory effects of individual and combined drugs on A549 lung cancer cells were evaluated using MTT assay.<br><strong>Results</strong>: A sustained pattern of drug release was shown by PLGA/DDP, PLGA/Rg3, and PLGA/DDP+Rg3. The formulated PLGA and unbound drugs exerted dose- and time-reliant cytotoxic effects on A549 cells. At all concentrations tested, drugs encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles were more effective in killing the cells than the free drugs (p &lt; 0.05). In particular, PLGA/DDP + Rg3 formulation produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 cells.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Single- and dual-load PLGA groups display variabilities in profiles of drug release and in vitro cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, dual-load PLGA group produces significantly enhanced treatment effect. These results suggest that PLGA formulations hold great potential for future drug delivery.</p> Wen Xu, Qingping Zhang, Leiming Sun Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Catalpol attenuates EMT by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β/Smads signaling to alleviate kidney fibrosis <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the anti-fibrosis effect and underlying mechanism of action of catalpol (CAT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Forty (40) rats were randomly divided into a sham group (10 rats) and a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model group (30&nbsp; rats) which was further randomly subdivided into three groups of ten (10) rats each: the UUO model group, UUO + CAT low-dose group,&nbsp; and UUO + CAT high-dose group. HK-2 cells were stimulated with TGF-β1 for in vitro studies. Renal injury and fibrotic lesions were determined by H&amp;E and Masson’s staining. Key proteins of TGF-β/Smads and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways involved in epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Catalpol downregulated the expression of α-SMA (p &lt; 0.05) and upregulated the expression of E-cadherin (p &lt; 0.05) stimulated&nbsp; by TGF-β1 and LiCl in HK-2 cells, which is consistent with the role of DKK1 in vitro. CAT ameliorated renal fibrosis and repressed the&nbsp; expression of key proteins of TGFβ/Smads and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in UUO rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Catalpol inhibits EMT and alleviates&nbsp; kidney fibrosis by suppressing the hyperactivation of TGF-β/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Therefore, CAT is a promising&nbsp; therapeutic drug for renal fibrosis.</p> Hong-yan Gao, Tao-ren Ruan, Mao Xing, Yi Chen, Shu-tong Bai, Jin-kun Liu, Xiao-wen Yu, Jing Feng, Xiao-yu Xu, Qin Wang Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-parkinsonian, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic and anticancer activities of poly-fused ring pyrimidine derivatives <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-parkinsonian, anti-microbial, analgesic,&nbsp; and anti-hyperglycemic&nbsp; properties of a variety of poly-fused pyrimidine derivatives.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A novel series of fused pyrimidine derivatives 1-6 were synthesized by reacting amino&nbsp; pyrazole derivatives with active&nbsp; methylene derivatives to give the corresponding compounds 1-6. Anti-parkinsonian activity was investigated with benzotropene as a&nbsp; reference drug, anti-inflammatory effect&nbsp; in mice was evaluated using carrageenan in paw edema with indomethacin as reference drug,&nbsp; anti-microbial activity was assessed using nutritional agar with ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole as reference&nbsp; drugs, analgesic activity&nbsp; was evaluated using valdecoxib as reference drug, anti-hyperglycemic activity&nbsp; was investigated using alloxan and sucrose models (SLM)&nbsp; with pioglitazone as reference drug and&nbsp; anticancer activity was investigated using the MTT micro-cultured tetrazolium assay method&nbsp; with&nbsp; doxorubicin as reference drug.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Pyrimidine derivatives 1-6 possess significant active anti-parkinsonian, anti-inflammatory,&nbsp; anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic and anticancer activities in comparison to the reference drugs&nbsp; used for each model.&nbsp; Compared to Benzotropene®, compounds 1 and 3 showed a significantly stronger&nbsp; anti-parkinsonian activity (p &lt; 0.03). Compound 3&nbsp; showed a significantly stronger anti-inflammatory&nbsp; effect than Indomethacin® (p &lt; 0.05). Compounds 5 and 6 exhibited significant anti- microbial activity&nbsp; compared to ciprofloxacin® (p &lt; 0.05). Compounds 4 and 6 exhibited significantly improved analgesic&nbsp; activity as&nbsp; compared to Valdecoxib® (p &lt; 0.01). Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited significantly higher anti-hyperglycemic effects in SLM model when&nbsp; compared to pioglitazone® (p &lt; 0.02). Compound 5&nbsp; demonstrated the highest activity against human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and&nbsp; human prostate&nbsp; cancer cell line (DU145), and also, significantly improved level of efficacy against human lung cancer&nbsp; cell line (A549)&nbsp; compared to Doxorubicin® (p &lt; 0.02).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Using the six pyrimidine derivatives 1 - 6 as a lead molecule, a novel class of clinically&nbsp; beneficial anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic, and anti-hyperglycemic drugs may&nbsp; be produced.&nbsp;</p> Rawan S.M. Bafail, Waad A. Samman Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Cytotoxicity of luteolin, a flavonoid compound isolated from <i>Anthemis palestina</i> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the active principle responsible for the cytotoxic effect of <em>Anthemis palestina </em>(Reut. ex Kotschy) Reut. ex Boiss. (Asteraceae).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate the active principle, luteolin, which structure was elucidated using <sup>1</sup>H and&nbsp;&nbsp; <sup>13</sup>C NMR. The cytotoxic effects of luteolin and doxorubicin (positive control) in the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, and in normal fibroblasts, were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Luteolin was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of Anthemis palestina. With an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 14.91 ± 5.77&nbsp; µM for MDA-MB-231 cells, luteolin was less active than doxorubicin. However, with respect to MCF-7 cells, there was no significant&nbsp; difference in the cytotoxicity values of luteolin and doxorubicin, with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 29.28 ± 11.85 µM for luteolin. However, with an IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp; value of 51.39 ± 18.51 µM against fibroblasts, luteolin was significantly safer than doxorubicin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Luteolin might be responsible&nbsp; for the cytotoxicity of Anthemis palestina. The high level of luteolin cytotoxicity indicates the potential benefits of <em>Anthemis palestina</em>, not&nbsp; only in terms of its taste, but also for its likely positive therapeutic impact on cancer, especially breast cancer.&nbsp;</p> Yahia Z. Tabaza, Zuh-Kyung Seong, Young-Mi Kim, Walhan Alshaer, Talal A. Aburjai Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Potential role of CI-679 against artemisinin-resistant <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the role of nitroquine (CI-679) against artemisinin-resistant <em>Plasmodium </em><em>falciparum (P. falciparum)</em> C580Y strain.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Antimalarial activity of CI-679 against blood stages in <em>Plasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii)</em> - infected BALB/c mice model was first&nbsp; identified. Thereafter, in vitro assays were performed to investigate the inhibitory activity against blood stages of artemisinin-sensitive <em>P.&nbsp; falciparum</em> 3D7 strain. Finally, the potential effect of CI-679 was also investigated on artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum, which was constructed by introducing C580Y mutation in K13 of the 3D7 using the CRISPR-CAS9 technology.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: CI-679 significantly suppressed&nbsp; the growth of rodent malaria parasite, <em>P. yoelii</em> BY265, in a dose-dependent manner, and also inhibited the development of&nbsp; the parasites in mice (p &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, CI-679 efficiently inhibited the growth of artemisinin-sensitive <em>P. falciparum</em> 3D7 in vitro, with more sensitivity against late phase of blood stages (p &lt; 0.05). Also, CI-679 suppressed the development of artemisinin-resistant <em>P.&nbsp; falciparum</em> C580Y strain, and the inhibitory effect was comparable to that of artemisinin-sensitive 3D7 strain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: CI-679 exhibits&nbsp; potent antimalarial activity against blood stages of <em>P. yoelii</em> BY265 in vivo, and both artemisinin-sensitive <em>P. falciparum</em> 3D7 and&nbsp; artemisinin-resistant<em> P. falciparum</em> C580Y in vitro. Further pharmacokinetic properties, tolerability and safety of the compound need to be&nbsp; investigated to support this claim.&nbsp;</p> Nie Tan, Yuemeng Zhao, Yan Ding, Yong Fu, Haoxing Li, Jian Zhang, Qingfeng Zhang, Wenyue Xu Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Crude extracts of <i>Momordica cochinchinensis</i> (Lour.) Spreng exerts antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory properties in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory properties of the leaves, seeds and pulp of Momordica cochinchinensis&nbsp; Spreng (commonly known as Gac) in vitro and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglial cells.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Lipopolysaccharide was applied to BV2 cells for 24 h in the presence or absence of Gac extracts. Then, levels of reactive oxygen&nbsp; species (ROS) were assayed using CM-H2DCFDA method, while nitric oxide (NO) level was determined with Griess reagent. The levels of&nbsp; TNF-α and IL-6 were&nbsp; determined using ELISA. Three different assays were used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activities of the&nbsp; extracts, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging; 2,2’-azinobis-3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging,&nbsp; and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total flavonoids content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were also determined.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were significantly higher levels of ROS, NO, TNF and IL-6 in LPS-treated BV2 cells than in control cells (p &lt; 0.05). However,&nbsp; exposure of LPS treated BV2 cells to the leaf, seed and pulp extracts of Gac led to marked decreases in levels of ROS and inflammatory&nbsp; mediators, when compared with untreated cells, with the seed extract producing significantly larger decreases in levels of ROS and inflammatory mediators than the leaf and pulp extracts (p &lt; 0.05). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and total reducing&nbsp; power activities of the seed extract were superior to those of the leaf and pulp extracts. Moreover, the seed extract showed higher&nbsp; contents of TFC and TPC than the other two extracts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Gac extracts exert antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects on LPS-activated BV2 cells and in an in vitro model.&nbsp; Therefore, Gac extracts, especially seed extract, may be beneficial in the preparation of innovative antioxidative and anti-neuroinflammatory herbal remedies, as well as dietary supplements.&nbsp;</p> Nootchanat Mairuae, Benjaporn Buranrat, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MethicillinResistant <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i> (MRSE) strains involved in biofilm formation <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The current study aims to investigate genotypic and phenotypic aspects of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains involved in the biofilm formation and the attendance of the icaADB gene and genotypic characterization of this gene by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: 60 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were isolated from clinical specimens, suspected of having the bacteria, from the laboratories of Isfahan. Biofilm formation was measured by the microtiter plate method. The attendance of biofilm formation genes was studied using PCR and all isolates producing biofilm (strong and moderate) were genetically classified by RAPD-PCR.<br><strong>Results</strong>: 37 isolates (61.7%) were MRSE and all positive biofilm strains. The prevalence of biofilmrelated genes in the isolates was SesC (100%), SesI (45.9%), icaA (29.7%), icaB (37.8%), icaC (81.08%), icaD (70.2%), arcA (81.08%), and opp3AB (70%). PCR analysis showed that among 30 isolates of strong and medium biofilm production, 70% (21/30) positive for the icaADB gene. The Dendrograms obtained from RAPD-PCR results showed that all nine main clusters were at an 80% similarity level, and there were four isolates of a single type.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: These findings confirmed the high genotypic diversity of biofilm-producing MRSE strains and the relative diffusion of specific clones among clinical samples.</p> Parisa Behshood, Elahe Tajbakhsh Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical efficacy of polysaccharide iron complex plus vitamin C in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy and their effect on iron metabolism <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polysaccharide iron complexes (PIC) plus vitamin C in treating iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy and its effect on iron metabolism.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Ninety pregnant women with IDA in their second trimester admitted into the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Nanchang Third Hospital, Jiangxi Province, China between June 2019 and June 2021 were randomly and equally assigned to receive either PIC (two 500 mg capsules daily) alone (control group) or PIC plus vitamin C (0.1 g daily) (study group) for 4 weeks. Efficacy was determined by changes in clinical symptoms and blood indices and iron metabolism indices (serum ferritin, serum iron, hepcidin, transferrin saturation) pre- and post-treatment. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were also recorded.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Both groups were comparable at baseline. Post-treatment, study group showed significantly higher red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean red blood cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) compared to control group (p &lt; 0.05). Iron metabolism indices also significantly improved in study group with serum ferritin (SF), serum iron (SI), hepcidin (Hepc), and transferrin saturation (TSAT) (p &lt; 0.05). The total clinical efficacy was higher in study group (p &lt; 0.05), and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was lower (p &lt; 0.05).<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The combination of PIC with vitamin C significantly improves the hematological indices, enhances iron metabolism, and reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to PIC alone in pregnant women with IDA. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to validate these results.</p> Changhui Qiu, Tao Tao, Zhixin Xia, Jing Fang Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of the combination of cyclosporine and sodium hyaluronate eye drops on dry eye syndrome <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the efficacy and adverse effect of cyclosporine combined with sodium<br>hyaluronate (SH) eye drops on dry eye syndrome (DES).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: 148 patients with DES treated in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Group Suqian Hospital,<br>Jiangsu Province, China between January 2022 and February 2023 were randomly assigned to control<br>(70 cases) and study groups (78 cases). Control group was treated with SH eye drop (1 drop each on<br>both eyes 5 - 6 times a day, for 2 months), while study group was treated with both SH (the same<br>dosage and use with control group) and cyclosporine eye drop (1 - 2 drops each for both eyes, 4 - 6<br>times a day, for two months). Tear film stability indices such as schirmer I test (SIT), tear break-up time<br>(BUT) and corneal fluorescein stain (FL) of both groups were analyzed before and after therapy.<br><strong>Results</strong>: There was no significant difference in BUT, SIT and FL score between the two groups before<br>treatment. Compared with before treatment, BUT and SIT increased significantly (p &lt; 0.05), while FL<br>score dropped significantly in both groups after treatment (p &lt; 0.05). After treatment, study group<br>showed significantly higher BUT and SIT levels, and significantly lower FL score than control group (p &lt;<br>0.05).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combination of cyclosporine eye drops with SH eye drops is effective in treating DES.<br>This combination regimen protects tear film stability, effectively alleviates DES symptoms, improves<br>ocular surface and meibomian gland function, and also increases lacrimal river height, without<br>increasing adverse reactions. Further studies will be required, to provide more evidence for clinical<br>application of this combination regimen.</p> Lei Shen, Nana Zhao, Xue Wang, Shuyan Qing Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic effect of the combination of fractional laser and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor in acne scar patients <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To assess the feasibility and safety of a combination therapy involving fractional laser treatment and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rb-bFGF) in acne scar patients.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: 90 patients with acne scar admitted at Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from September 2020 to December 2022 were enrolled in retrospective study. Patients were divided into control group (n = 41), treated with rb-bFGF alone and study group (n = 49), which underwent fractional laser treatment using Lutronic fractional laser device involving 40 days per session for three sessions, with additional application of rb-bFGF in the affected area at a dose of 300 IU/cm<sup>2 </sup>, three times daily, for seven consecutive days following the completion of each laser treatment session. Treatment effect, skin physiological indices, lactic acid stinging test (LAST) scores, stratum corneum integrity, and incidence of adverse reactions were determined.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Study group demonstrated superior efficacy with a total effectiveness of 97.96 %, significantly outperforming control group at 85.3 % (p &lt; 0.05). Pre-treatment, both groups exhibited comparable values in trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, stratum corneum hydration, and erythema (a-value) (p&gt; 0.05). Post-treatment, both groups exhibited significant improvements, with reduced TEWL, pH, and a-value, along with increased stratum corneum hydration (p &lt; 0.05). Compared to control group, study group showed significantly lower TEWL, pH, and a-value, coupled with higher stratum corneum hydration (p &lt; 0.05). Post-treatment, study group demonstrated lower total LAST scores, improved stratum corneum integrity, and a significantly lower incidence of adverse reactions.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combination of fractional laser and rb-bFGF in patients with acne scar improves skin barrier function, reduces lactic acid-induced stinging, and enhances stratum corneum integrity. Further research and clinical trials are needed to optimize the treatment protocols.</p> Bingwei Wu, Mingju Gao, Xinping Bai Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Individualized treatment strategy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis based on imaging evaluation <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To study the effect of individualized treatment strategy based on imaging evaluation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Eighty patients with RA of the wrist treated in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China from January&nbsp; 2018 to December 2022 were assigned to control and study groups. Conventional methods were used for treating control subjects, based&nbsp; on RA laboratory index results, while the study group received individualized treatment based on RA laboratory index results and results&nbsp; of imaging evaluation. Before and after treatment, serum levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assayed&nbsp; using immunoturbidimetry. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined by Wei method. Imaging examination - ultrasound or&nbsp; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - was carried out in study group before and after treatment. Disease activity score 28 (DAS28) and&nbsp; score on the visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated before and after treatment, and the curative effect in the two groups was&nbsp; compared based on curative effect evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In both groups, post-treatment values of RF, CRP and ESR were lower than the corresponding pre-treatment levels, but were significantly smaller in study group (p &lt; 0.05). The DAS28 and VAS scores of the two groups&nbsp; after treatment were significantly lower (p &lt; 0.05) than the pretreatment levels, but the DAS28 and VAS scores were significantly lower in&nbsp; study group (p &lt; 0.05). Treatment efficacy in study group (95.0 %) was significantly higher than in control patients (77.5 %, p = 0.0476). The&nbsp; results of imaging indicators showed significantly reduced post-treatment synovial thickness and joint effusion in study group&nbsp; patients when compared with control patients (p &lt; 0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Individualized treatment strategy for RA patients based on imaging&nbsp; results enhances curative effectiveness, reduces disease activity, relieves pain, and improves the quality of life of patients.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> Fan Xiaoli, Fan Yanhua, Wang Juan, Bu Shunlin, Chen Rong, Pang Xiaoli, Chen Mingliang, Wang Longxiang Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of berberine on glucolipid metabolism, carotid thickness, vascular endothelial function, oxidative stress and intestinal flora in patients with coronary heart disease <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the effect of berberine on glucolipid metabolism, carotid thickness, vascular endothelial function, oxidative stress&nbsp; and intestinal flora in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: 68 patients with CHD admitted to the Department of&nbsp; Cardiology, Henan Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China were assigned to two groups of 34 patients each. Control&nbsp; group received anti-CHD treatment while study group was given 0.3 g of berberine three times daily for 4 weeks. Changes in glucolipid&nbsp; metabolism, carotid thickness, vascular endothelial function, oxidative stress and intestinal flora were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Total&nbsp; cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-1β of CHD patients from study group were significantly&nbsp; decreased compared to control group (p &lt; 0.05) while superoxide dismutase (p = 0.019) and total antioxidant capacity (p = 0.009) of CHD&nbsp; patients in study group were significantly increased. In addition, reduced endothelin-1 and elevated Nitric Oxide levels were shown in&nbsp; CHD patients in study group (p &lt; 0.001). Furthermore, the carotid intima-media thickness decreased in study group, while Aquificae,&nbsp; Paraprevotella, Abiotrophia, Rubrobacterales, Bacteroidales and other microbes were abundant in the intestinal tract of study group&nbsp; patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Berberine improves glucolipid metabolism, carotid thickness, vascular endothelial function, oxidative stress and&nbsp; intestinal flora in CHD patients. Berberine may therefore be effective in the treatment of CHD. Further studies are, however, required to&nbsp; establish these claims.&nbsp;</p> Fengming Yang, Chuiyi Zeng, Zhenyi Chen Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A qualitative study on factors that influence the degree of comfort experienced by patients undergoing respiratory endoscopy in combination with intravenous injections of remimazolam besylate and fentanyl <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the level of discomfort in patients undergoing respiratory endoscopy in order to provide experimental evidence&nbsp; for the formulation of a comfort assessment scale for this procedure, and for guiding future research and intervention measures.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Using the phenomenological research method of qualitative research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18&nbsp; patients who underwent respiratory endoscopy in the Respiratory Intervention Center of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang&nbsp; University School of Medicine. The interview data were analyzed, and the theme was extracted using the Colaizzi 7-step analysis method. During the surgery, remimazolam besylate (intravenous injection, 5 - 7.5 mg) was used in combination with fentanyl (intravenous&nbsp; injection, 1 - 2 µg/kg) for flexible bronchoscopy examination.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: From the interview data, 3 themes and 9 sub-themes that affect the&nbsp; comfort of patients undergoing respiratory endoscopic surgery were identified. These comprised individual factors (fear and worry&nbsp; about the outcome), family factors (family financial difficulties and lack of care from family), and medical care factors (attitude of medical&nbsp; caregivers, insufficient health education, unreasonable operation arrangements, inconvenient care, and surgical complications).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Patients undergoing respiratory endoscopy experience a higher degree of comfort when remimazolam besylate is used in&nbsp; combination with fentanyl. Medical staff should correctly identify the sources of discomfort in patients undergoing respiratory endoscopy&nbsp; under general anesthesia, and provide targeted interventions to improve the comfort experienced. Moreover, the quality of&nbsp; service provided by medical staff should be improved.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Chaojuan Yang, Chengying Kong, Leying Jin, Li Yang, Danmeng Peng, Tao Jiang Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of tacrolimus capsules in patients undergoing high-risk keratoplasty <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To evaluate the efficacy of tacrolimus capsules in patients undergoing high-risk keratoplasty.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: 40 high-risk patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty at The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, China&nbsp; between January 2016 and December 2021 were included in this study. These patients were divided into two groups based on the specific&nbsp; immunosuppressant administered post-surgery. Twenty patients were administered oral tacrolimus capsules in conjunction with 0.1 % tacrolimus eye drops, constituting the combination with systemic treatment group (group 1), while another twenty patients were solely&nbsp; administered 0.1 % tacrolimus eye drops, forming the topical treatment group (group 2). The occurrence of rejection, corneal&nbsp; neovascularization, corneal graft edema and visual acuity were documented in both groups.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In comparison to patients in group&nbsp; 2, patients in group 1 exhibited a significant reduction in rejection rate (p &lt; 0.05). Additionally, the average time of neovascularization in&nbsp; group 1 was delayed and the number of cases was lower (p &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, a smaller proportion of patients in group 1 experienced&nbsp; corneal graft edema (25 vs 60 %, p &lt; 0.05), while a higher percentage of patients in group 1 demonstrated improved visual acuity (90 vs 60&nbsp; %, p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Concurrent administration of tacrolimus eye drops and capsules orally effectively mitigates anti-rejection&nbsp; reactions, regulation of neovascularization, management of graft edema and enhancement of visual acuity in high-risk keratoplasty&nbsp; patients when compared to the use of tacrolimus eye drops as a standalone treatment. These results have the potential to stimulate&nbsp; novel avenues of investigation in future clinical research.&nbsp;</p> Xiaorong Zhang, Jia Yao, Tengfei Ma, Haoyu Chen, Hengju Xu, Yinghui Ye, Liying Zhai Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Stress response and safety of lidocaine combined with dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the anesthetic effect and safety issues when lidocaine is combined with dexmedetomidine in laparoscopic hysterectomy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The data for 100 patients from the Anesthesiology Department of Changzhou Second People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing&nbsp; Medical University who underwent laparoscopic total hysterectomy were randomly but equally divided into a control group and a&nbsp; combination group. Lidocaine hydrochloride was administered by infusion in the control group, while dexmedetomidine and lidocaine&nbsp; were administered together in the combination group. Inflammatory factors and stress hormone levels before and after the operation, as&nbsp; well as the incidence of adverse reactions following the operation, hemodynamic index, visual pain simulation (VAS) score, and&nbsp; sedation score at various times after the operation were evaluated in the two groups. Furthermore, the incidence of postoperative adverse reactions were also recorded and compared between the two groups.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The combination group's recovery time was&nbsp; significantly longer than that of the control group (p &lt; 0.05). At the point of extubation and 10 min after, mean arterial pressure (MAP)&nbsp; and heart rate (HR) in the combination group were significantly lower than those of the control group, respectively (p &lt; 0.05), while the&nbsp; combination group's VAS and Ramsay scores were statistically lower than those of the control group at 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h following&nbsp; surgery, respectively (p &lt; 0.05). The incidence of nausea and vomiting in the combination group was significantly lower than that in the&nbsp; control group (28.0% vs 58.0%, p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Lidocaine and dexmedetomidine, when combined, enhance hemodynamics,&nbsp; postoperative analgesia, and sedation in laparoscopic hysterectomy patients. The combination also lowers inflammatory stress and&nbsp; stress hormone levels, as well as the risk of nausea and vomiting, leading to better safety in the patients. However, multicenter trials are&nbsp; recommended to validate these findings prior to its use clinical practice.&nbsp;</p> Jiao Zhang, Jun Chen Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the efficacy of beta-blockers and reninangiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the clinical effectiveness of beta-blockers (BBs) and renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: 100 patients with HFpEF admitted to The Third Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University, China, between April and June&nbsp; 2023 were stratified into five groups. Beta-blocker (BB) group received bisoprolol, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) group&nbsp; received benazepril hydrochloride, angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) group received candesartan, angiotensin receptor neprilysin&nbsp; inhibitor (ARNI) group received sacubitril valsartan, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) group received spironolactone.&nbsp; Differences in clinical effectiveness, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), cardiac functionality, quality of life, and survival rate were&nbsp; compared among the groups.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Beta-blocker group showed the highest efficacy. After treatment, all groups except MRA showed&nbsp; significant improvement in 6MWD. Also, ACEI, ARB, and ARNI groups exhibited significantly longer 6 MWD than MRA group (p &lt; 0.05). Left&nbsp; ventricular ejection fraction levels showed significant improvement in the ACEI, ARNI, and MRA groups (p &lt; 0.05), while pulmonary&nbsp; artery pressure (PAP) decreased in the BB, ACEI, ARNI, and MRA groups (p &lt; 0.05). After treatment, the Minnesota Living with Heart&nbsp; Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) scores of BB, ACEI, ARB, and ARNI groups were significantly lower than before treatment (p &lt; 0.05). All five&nbsp; groups significantly exhibited decline in NTproBNP levels after treatment (p &lt; 0.05). However, at 18-month follow-up, there was no&nbsp; significant difference in survival rates among the groups (p &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Beta-blockers (BBs) and RAAS inhibitors show promising&nbsp; activity in HFpEF, bisoprolol enhances cardiac function, benazepril improves symptoms, candesartan aids exercise and sacubitril valsartan&nbsp; elevates cardiac class. However, none of these drugs significantly improves clinical outcomes.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Di Zhao, Yanling Bu, Jiarui Guo, Yanping Huo, Na Zhang, Haifeng Shao Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of the combination of HA380 hemoperfusion with CVVHDF on inflammatory indices and microcirculation in early septic shock <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the clinical efficacy of combining HA380 hemoperfusion with continuous venovenous hemodialysis filtration&nbsp; (CVVHDF) in early-stage septic shock.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Data from 107 patients admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University, China from January 2020 to January 2022 were&nbsp; analyzed. They were divided into control group (53 cases, on conventional treatment + CVVHDF) and study group (54 cases, on&nbsp; conventional treatment + CVVHDF + HA380 hemoperfusion). Changes in vital signs, renal function, inflammatory markers,&nbsp; microcirculatory indices and disease severity were compared before and after treatment. Adverse reactions and prognostic indicators&nbsp; were also recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In both groups, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine (Scr), calcitoninogen&nbsp; (PCT), c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) and&nbsp; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Status Scoring System II (APACHE II) decreased after 7 days of treatment. These improvements were&nbsp; more significant in study group relative to control group. MAP, MFI and PPV showed an elevation in study group when compared to&nbsp; control group. Both groups showed no marked difference in the incidence of adverse reactions (7.55 vs. 12.96 %). The study group had&nbsp; shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stays, duration of mechanical ventilation and total hospital stays in comparison to control group (p&nbsp; &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combination of HA380 hemoperfusion and CVVHDF effectively improves renal function, controls septic shock,&nbsp; inhibits the inflammatory response, enhances microcirculation and improves short-term prognosis without significantly increasing&nbsp; adverse reactions. This treatment modality seems promising for early-stage septic shock pending outcomes of evaluating their long-term efficacy and prognosis.&nbsp;</p> Guochao Zhu, Jing Zhang, Mei Ye, Jiao Du, Chao Liu, Huaping Liu, Ruixue Li, Liang Sun Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of nutritional intervention on concurrent chemoradiotherapy outcomes in locally advanced esophageal cancer: A pharmacological perspective <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the pharmacological implications of nutritional intervention and the occurrence of toxic side effects in patients&nbsp; with locally advanced esophageal cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An extensive retrospective analysis of&nbsp; clinical data was carried out on individuals who received concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. 150 patients were included in the study, with 85&nbsp; patients receiving nutritional management (intervention group) and 65 patients without nutritional support (control group).&nbsp; Assessments were conducted for Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) and patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG- SGA) scores, serum nutritional parameters, toxic side effects and treatment completion rates at 2, 4, and 6 weeks before and during&nbsp; chemo-radiotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: After concurrent chemo-radiotherapy, intervention group exhibited significantly lower NRS2002 and PG- SGA scores compared to control group (p = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Intervention group had a statistically significant increase in&nbsp; PALB (p = 0.001) and ALB, while control group experienced a significant decline in ALB (albumin) and PALB (pre-albumin) levels. Grip&nbsp; strength also significantly decreased in control group compared to intervention group (p = 0.003). Intervention group showed a&nbsp; significantly lower incidence of radiation esophagitis. Moreover, a smaller proportion of patients in intervention group experienced&nbsp; interruptions or delays in radiotherapy compared to control group (95 % vs. 83.3 %).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Nutritional intervention has a&nbsp; pharmacological impact on maintaining nutritional status, reducing treatment toxicities and improving the completion rates of chemo- radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Further investigations and longer-term studies are warranted to shed&nbsp; more light on the potential impact of nutritional interventions on the overall survival rates of these patients&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jie Liu, Hong Lu, Pei Wang, Yuexin Zhao, Xin Gu, Yaqin Zuo, Dahai Yu Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Study on the efficacy of different injection regimens of aflibercept in the treatment of diabetic macular edema <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To determine the efficacy of different regimens of aflibercept injection in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective analysis was performed on 78 DME patients admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, China from&nbsp; January 2021 to December 2022. The patients, categorized into control group (39 patients) and study group (39 patients), received varying&nbsp; regimens of aflibercept injections pro re nata (PRN); 3 + PRN regimen and 5 + PRN regimen, respectively. Best-corrected visual&nbsp; acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were measured at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following treatment. The&nbsp; proportions of BCVA improvement by 10 and 15 letters at 12 months and incidence of visual acuity instability during the as-needed period&nbsp; were calculated. Adverse events were also recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The BCVA significantly improved in both groups at 3, 6, and 12&nbsp; months (p &lt; 0.05), with no significant difference between the groups (p &gt; 0.05). The proportions of BCVA improvement by 10 and 15&nbsp; letters at 12 months were similar between the groups. Study group had a significantly lower rate of visual acuity instability during the as- needed period (p &lt; 0.05) compared to control group. The CMT significantly reduced in both groups at all time points (p &lt; 0.05), with no&nbsp; significant difference observed between the groups. Study group had significantly fewer injections during the as-needed period (p &lt; 0.05)&nbsp; compared to control group. Adverse events did not significantly differ between the two groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Both 3 + PRN and 5 + PRN regimens of Aflibercept injection are effective in treating DME. However, the 5 + PRN regimen demonstrates a lower rate of visual&nbsp; acuity instability and requires fewer injections during the as-needed period. Future studies are needed to analyze the efficacy and differences between various injection regimens for treating DME.&nbsp;</p> Lan Liu, Xi Wang, Xinming Peng, Guang Chen, Yue Zhao, Pengcheng Liang, Shuoying Wang, Peng Chen Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Venetoclax in combination with azacitidine or decitabine in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To investigate the clinical effects of venetoclax combined with azacitidine or decitabine in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid&nbsp; leukemia.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: 208 eligible first-line participants, who were diagnosed and treated for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia&nbsp; between January 2022 and December 2022, were recruited from the Department of Hematology of Loudi Central Hospital, China. The&nbsp; patients were randomly divided into study and control groups at the point of recruitment. Patients in the control group received&nbsp; venetoclax combined with decitabine, while those in the study group received venetoclax in combination with azacitidine. Clinical data for&nbsp; the two groups were recorded. The primary endpoints of this study included efficacy, routine blood indices, and adverse reactions.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There was no statistically significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups (p &gt; 0.05), indicating&nbsp; comparability. The total effectiveness of the treatment (i.e., efficacy) in the study group was higher than in the control group (p &lt; 0.05),&nbsp; while the control group had a higher risk of platelet, red blood cell, and neutrophil absolute count reduction than the study group (p &lt;&nbsp; 0.05). The platelet count and hemoglobin level were lower in the control group after treatment compared to the study group (p &lt; 0.05).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combination of venetoclax with azacitidine improves the efficacy and blood routine indices of patients with relapsed/ refractory acute myeloid leukemia, while reducing adverse reactions.&nbsp;</p> Yue Che, Wanqing Tan, Ying Liu, Haitao Liu, Lanlan Li, Fangmei Qin Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Glaucoma: A review of current management, patients’ adherence, direct and indirect cost, and barriers to drug delivery <p>Glaucoma is the world’s leading cause of permanent blindness, influenced by numerous variables, including socio-demographic factors.&nbsp; This review considered existing management practices and innovative methods of drug delivery, as well as how they relate to patient&nbsp; adherence and therapy costs. Literatures were compiled using search engines including ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar and WHO&nbsp; database. The eye is a complex organ with various anatomical barriers presenting significant challenges in treating glaucoma due&nbsp; to poor patient compliance with topical ocular medications. Advanced drug delivery systems like implants, nano or microparticles,&nbsp; punctal plugs, contact lenses, topical ring-type systems, gels, and other depot systems such as intracameral, supraciliary, and intravitreal&nbsp; applied in the extraocular, periocular, or intraocular sites, significantly enhance medication absorption, reduce adverse effects, and&nbsp; improve patient compliance. Poor treatment adherence, stemming from various reasons, lead to inadequate glaucoma management,&nbsp; increasing direct (34 to 45 %) and indirect costs (55 to 66 %) of therapy. As a result, a variety of treatments including enhanced drug&nbsp; delivery systems have been tested to address these concerns, and some modern pharmaceuticals and drug delivery technologies are&nbsp; being developed.&nbsp;</p> Farhan Alshammari Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect, main targets and molecular mechanisms of glycyrrhiza-derived flavonoids on malignant tumor in comprehensive cancer treatment <p><em>Glycyrrhiza flavonoids</em> (GF) are essential antitumor components of <em>Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhiza </em><em>glabra, </em>and<em> Glycyrrhiza inflata</em> roots and&nbsp; tubers, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune-enhancing amongst other properties. In recent years, significant&nbsp; progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms and targets of GF in various pharmacological settings. This review summarizes the clinical value, targets and research progress of the molecular mechanisms underlying GF in the treatment of malignant&nbsp; tumors. This will provide as a theoretical foundation for further studies into GF as a therapeutic option in the management of cancerous&nbsp; tumors.</p> Wei Hu, Wenzhe Ma, Bo Li, Yu Hou, Rongyang Dai Copyright (c) 2024 Mon, 05 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000