Conservation efforts of Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis: its discovery, captive breeding, extinction in the wild and re-introduction
Species conservation depends on the initiatives to restore or retain and sustainably use the environment in which the species live. This paper highlights how development projects can affect biodiversity conservation and the challenges in achieving sustainable development. The paper discusses a case study of the Kihansi Spray Toad (KST) (Nectophrynoides asperginis) from its discovery, extinction in the wild, captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction to its native habitat; focusing on events, challenges, approaches in addressing issues, future prospects and achievements in the conservation of this endemic species. There has been considerable success in KST husbandry in captivity and reintroduction trials of the toad to the wild while concurrently the operations of the hydropower plant and the catchment ecosystem services have continued to provide electricity for domestic & industrial development and support human livelihoods respectively. The paper underscores the importance of interdisciplinary approach in addressing conservation problems and the need for serious commitment of participating parties, but also on the need to balance conservation with sustainable development.
Key words: Kihansi spray toad, extinction, reintroduction,