Town and Regional Planning <p><em>Town and Regional Planning</em> is a South African accredited journal for independently adjudicated research articles on applicable topics in town, urban and regional planning. Each peer refereed article is indicated as such in the journal. The editorial staff considers articles in English and Afrikaans, written from any responsible point of view on subjects in any applicable field of scholarship, i.e. town, urban and regional planning. Authors are requested to write their manuscripts in a manner and style that is intelligible to specialists and non-specialists alike. Research contributions, which are peer reviewed, are: Review Articles, Research Articles, and Perspective Articles. Book reviews are also considered. The format for these categories can be found in the <a href="">Guidelines to Authors</a>. <em>Town and Regional Planning</em> is endorsed by the <a href="">South African Council for Planners (SACPLAN)</a> the statutory Council of nominated members to regulate the Planning Profession in South Africa.</p> <p><span class="apple-converted-space">See the journals website here; <a href=""></a></span></p> en-US <p><strong>Copyright:</strong><strong> </strong>Copyright is transferred to the author(s) when an article is accepted for publication. <strong> </strong><strong><br /> <strong>Publishing rights:</strong> </strong>When an author/s publish an article in <em>Town and Regional planning</em>, the author/s enter into a non-exclusive publishing agreement. This means that author/s may upload a second copy to institutional repositories.</p> (Alna Beukes) (Deputy Editor: Alna Beukes) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The effects of climate change on informal settlements <p>No Abstract.</p> Das Steyn Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gentrification in South Africa’s inner cities: Dignity takings requires restoration <p>Urban development in South Africa has generally sustained and reproduced spatially unequal and exclusionary trends and outcomes particularly for the&nbsp; majority of the poor non-White populace. This article re-examines the urban redevelopment processes and ecosystems of South Africa to identify why&nbsp; this might be the case. Atuahene’s ‘dignity’ concept and framework is adopted for this inquiry. Her framework posits the combination of systematic&nbsp; property deprivation, dehumanisation and infantilisation of poor non-White South Africans as evidence to theorise that the urban land situation in post- apartheid South Africa constitutes ‘dignity takings’ (DT) and demands a ‘dignity restoration’ (DR) response. This article explores the applicability and&nbsp; usefulness of this DT/DR framework in advancing more spatially just and inclusive frameworks and futures for South Africa. It does this by applying the&nbsp; framework to the dynamics of urban socio-spatial change in post-apartheid South Africa, with a focus on the phenomenon of gentrification and its&nbsp; exclusionary effects in four urban case vignettes. The lived experiences of these cases are used to demonstrate that there are both material and non- material aspects to unjust urban development, and that both types of deprivation require attention. The article proposes that gentrification can be&nbsp; viewed as ‘dignity takings’, as it strips residents of their sense of place, ownership, and access to a better quality of life. It is thus argued that policymakers&nbsp; could consider the DR/DT framework as an urban development lens through which to understand the unsuccessful attempts to merely&nbsp; accept, resettle, or compensate displaced residents, proposing DR as a means to fully redress – rather than reproduce – the injustices of the past. The&nbsp; DR/DT framework could contribute towards achieving South Africa’s Integrated Urban Development Framework’s transformation goal of having&nbsp; development policies and approaches that move towards systematic DR that includes spatial justice, sustainability, efficiency, resilience, and good&nbsp; administration.</p> Geci Karuri-Sebina, Frederick Beckley Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Examining liveability in the informal community of Kabawa, Nigeria <p>This article examines the nature and causes of liveability challenges faced by the residents of Kabawa, an informal community south-east of Lokoja, the&nbsp; capital of Kogi State, North-Central Nigeria, and points out solutions to the identified problems. Liveability concepts were adopted, while both primary&nbsp; and secondary data were used. The research instruments used included a structured questionnaire, an observation checklist, and a housing facility&nbsp; survey. A total of 180 household heads/ respondents were randomly selected for the study. The study establishes that the community exhibited slum&nbsp; characteristics, including poor housing conditions, filthy environment, poor sanitation, indiscriminate waste disposal, and acute lack of basic infrastructure. Illiteracy, poverty, poor maintenance of the available facilities, and lack of participation in governance are common challenges reported by&nbsp; residents. The study recommends improved planning and partnership between government and other community development stakeholders towards&nbsp; achieving improved liveability through participatory, community-centred development and a financial framework.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ayodeji Obayomi, Ayobami Popoola, Samuel Medayese, Bolanle Wahab Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Urban pressure on the Rietvlei Nature Reserve in Tshwane, South Africa: An application of the Greenspace Stress Model of Urban Impact <p>Despite the ecosystem services potentially provided by urban green spaces, there are concerns about the sustainability thereof. Therefore, the nexus&nbsp; between development, conservation, and sense of place was explored from a geographical perspective. A Greenspace Stress Model of Urban Impact was&nbsp; developed through a case study of the Rietvlei Nature Reserve in Tshwane, Gauteng province, South Africa. The position of an urban green space within&nbsp; two rapidly expanding cities was evaluated through a case study. Methods included a literature study, an analysis of land-use changes on remote sensing&nbsp; images, face-to-face interviews, and focus group interviews. Findings from this research include that urban growth leads to increasing human needs and&nbsp; expectations regarding the ecological services provided by green spaces. Stressors within the reserve include the water quality, the presence of invasive&nbsp; species, development pressures intensified by the location relative to spatial development corridors and administrative boundaries, and insufficient environmental awareness. Successful local strategies support the idea that green space should be fit for purpose and meet the expectations justifying its&nbsp; existence. Global environmental concerns should be considered in urban planning frameworks and in management of local spaces that people know and&nbsp; care about. The physical characteristics and functions of an urban green space as well as the environmental perception and sense-of-place&nbsp; evaluations of different stakeholders are important in decision-making about, and sustainability of ecosystem services.</p> Anna de Jager Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A review of some of the criteria used in landdemarcation processes <p>In recent years, settlements have sprawled beyond the urban growth boundaries, due to a number of factors, including mobility, technology, and urban&nbsp; blight. As a result, governments globally have opted to restructure their local administrative boundaries (municipalities) to be more accommodating to&nbsp; the unplanned growth, while setting a clear limit to the extent to which the urban region could grow. Without a clear administrative boundary, urban&nbsp; problems such as civil conflict, administrative duplication, political corruption, lack of service delivery, and environmental degradation become more&nbsp; prevalent. In order to understand the driving forces behind administrative delimitation, this article reviews how local administrative boundaries can be&nbsp; delineated from a theoretical stance. It further unpacks various criteria to contextualise how boundaries could be demarcated and their resultant&nbsp; structure. The article reveals that, from a theoretical stance, the method of demarcating administrative urban boundaries is not apparent, since a variety&nbsp; of factors influence open systems. Consequently, this article provides awareness of the challenges of demarcating local administrative boundaries, with&nbsp; both administrative and policy implications. Administratively, it sheds light on criteria that can influence boundary demarcation. In terms of policy, it&nbsp; demonstrates that the demarcation of boundaries is a huge challenge that requires further research and action.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zaakirah Jeeva, Juanee Cilliers, Trynos Gumbo Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Conformity to zoned urban green spaces in physical development plans: A spatiotemporal analysis of Kisii Town, Kenya <p>Although evidence assessing the provision of urban green spaces (UGS) corroborates their decline, they have, however, not evaluated conformity to&nbsp; zoned UGS in physical development plans (PDPs). To fill the gap, this article examines conformity to zoned UGS in PDPs. It also investigates the drivers of&nbsp; the observed non-conformities. Anchored in the theory of regulatory compliance, the study was undertaken in Kisii Town, Kenya, as a case study of the&nbsp; zoned UGS in the Kisii Town Physical Development Plan (KTPDP). The population comprised a list of 367 developers occupying the zoned UGS, out of&nbsp; which a sample of 186 was randomly selected. Spatial and descriptive data were respectively collected using satellite images and questionnaires. The&nbsp; analysis relied on GIS, descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that 75 hectares (ha) of zoned UGS declined by 52% between 2005 and 2022,&nbsp; resulting in a low per capita UGS of 1.95 m<sup>2</sup> against the recommended 9 m<sup>2</sup> . These changes were caused by developing without permits, the County&nbsp; Government of Kisii (CGOK) granting permits to non-applicants, as well as approving developments without the mandatory change or extension of use,&nbsp; insufficient monitoring of developments, laxity in enforcing zoning regulations, and uncertainty in the engagement of registered architects during the&nbsp; development control process. Recommendations are made for a revised physical development plan covering the entire town to provide adequate UGS,&nbsp; ensuring that building plans are submitted by authorised professionals and regular surveillance audits to deter unauthorised developments. The article&nbsp; concludes that, in the absence of effective development control, UGS in Kisii Town will further decline, resulting in the residents not enjoying their&nbsp; acknowledged benefits.</p> Wilfred Omollo Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Differential urbanisation for settlement planning – A Western Cape case study <p>The differential urbanisation model is a means to assess settlement growth rates. While the model has been tested primarily at a national level, including&nbsp; in South Africa, this study seeks to apply the analysis to the sub-national scale in the Western Cape province and Cape Winelands district municipality. The&nbsp; study found that the model is applicable to both the province and the district municipality. Settlements of differing size and economic importance&nbsp; grew at varying rates relative to each other in a predictable sequence, which realised the urban hierarchy, over a 20-year period. This finding was&nbsp; unexpected, given that the urban differential model assumes economic growth as well as labour and socio-economic homogeneity – factors that have&nbsp; not been realised evenly sub-nationally. The applicability of the model to these locations may assist in the public division of resources, particularly in&nbsp; small towns, where meaningful urbanisation occurs, yet capital allocations are limited. The applicability of the study is in keeping with national, provincial,&nbsp; and municipal trends in planning that emphasise the interrelationship between settlements of different size and function over time, and the&nbsp; importance of spatial planning in guiding public infrastructure expenditure.&nbsp;</p> Peter Magni, Mari Smith Mari Smith, Helena Jacobs, Natasha Murray Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysing the spatial pattern of road networks in Kimberley, South Africa <p>The increasing burden on South African road networks necessitates sustainable solutions that conclude their spatial configuration and arrangement. A&nbsp; deeper understanding of the existing road network’s spatial organisation is, therefore, required. This study evaluates the structural design of road&nbsp; networks in Kimberley, South Africa, using spatial network science and open-source OpenStreetMap data. Nonplanar-directed multigraphs for Kimberley&nbsp; are constructed to analyse the structural and morphological characteristics of the network. The study area was evaluated with several network-analysis&nbsp; methods such as completeness, degree of centrality, betweenness, closeness, and PageRank. The study found that Kimberley has a low degree of&nbsp; centrality of 0.00111. This indicates that the road network should be less congested because there are fewer vulnerable spots. Because of the availability&nbsp; of two-way streets, the total edge length in the Kimberley network is nearly double the total street length. There are 2.97 streets radiating from Kimberley nodes on average. This suggests that three-way intersections are prevalent in Kimberley. Centrality measures and analysing the effects in terms of&nbsp; accessibility to the commerce and services of the city show how the legacy of racial segregation, poverty, and isolation from social and economic&nbsp; opportunities impedes the places within Kimberley. Results from the study also indicate that the informal sections of Galeshewe are fine-grained in terms&nbsp; of road network, while Kimberley CBD and nearby districts have coarse grain roads. This pattern contributes to the relative overall low average&nbsp; street segment length (a proxy for block size) of 107 metres in Kimberley.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Tabaro Kabanda Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation and Web-GIS geovisualisation of a suitable solid waste disposal site: Case study of New City, Harare <p>With the ever-increasing human population, there is a need to develop new urban settlements for human habitation. For these new settlements, it is&nbsp; imperative to optimally site different land-use zones, including solid waste disposal sites. The aim of this article is to determine suitable sites for locating&nbsp; a landfill in a new developed city in Zimbabwe around Mt. Hampden, named the New City. The New City will have various residential, commercial, and&nbsp; industrial areas. This entails the need for a proper site selection of a landfill to reduce the negative social and environmental effects such as&nbsp; contamination of water bodies and proliferation of diseases such as malaria. GIS and remote sensing were the major methods used in mapping the suitable areas. Multi-criteria evaluation and weighted overlay analysis methods were used in the landfill site selection process. Factors used for landfill&nbsp; site selection were rivers, settlements, roads, protected areas, and soils. A suitability map was generated, showing five potential sites that are suitable for&nbsp; landfill siting in the New City. Moderately suitable areas cover approximately 8%. A further 73% of the total land area in the study area is highly unsuitable&nbsp; for siting a landfill. A real-time WebGIS monitoring interface was developed to monitor land use on the selected area, because the New City is&nbsp; a new area under development. Using a Web-GIS interface makes data easily accessible to environment planners, ecologists, spatial land planners, and&nbsp; other decision makers.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Diana Dahwa, Aldridge Mazhindu, Kudzai Chirenje Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Does community development work? Stories and practice for reconstructed community development in South Africa <p>No Abstract</p> Peter Westoby, Lucius Botes Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000