Prevalence, predisposing factors and antibiogram of swine skin abscess in selected farms in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Abscess formation in the skin and other body parts is a leading cause of losses due to trimming and condemnation of pork carcasses in processing plants. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and predisposing factors of swine skin abscess in selected farms in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria and to determine the antibiogram of isolated pyogenic bacteria in order to recommend a suitable and effective treatment regimen for this condition. A total of 3,585 pigs from forty farms across six peri-urban local government areas in Ibadan were physically examined for skin abscesses. Questionnaires were administered to each of the farmers to obtain information on this condition. Bacteria isolation from pus samples was done using general, differential and selective media. Antibiogram was obtained using disc diffusion method. Data was analysed using percentages and one-way ANOVA. Significance was determined at p< 0.05. Swine skin abscess was observed to be a widespread condition as 22.5% of the farms sampled were affected although the prevalence was low (0.34%) having a range of 0.26%-5.56%. The predisposing factors to this condition include faulty injection, wounds from fights, ectoparasite infestation and sharp points on housing.Arcanobacterium sp. (42.9%), Staphylococcus sp. (35.7%) and Streptococcus sp. (21.4%) were isolated. Antibiogram shows that the highest number of isolates were sensitive to Erythromycin (100%), followed by Tetracycline (92.8%), Gentamycin (85.7%) and Chloramphenicol (85.7%). Sensitivity to Augmentin and Cotrimazole was 57.1%. Amoxycillin had the least number of sensitive isolates (21.4%) and all isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin. Among the sensitive isolates, the cumulative zone of inhibition (Mean+SD) increased in the order of Erythromycin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol respectively. These drugs therefore remain effective for first-line postsurgical chemotherapy in the management of swine skin abscess except Chloramphenicol which is banned in food animal therapy.
Running title: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors and Antibiogram of Swine Skin Abscess.
Keywords: Abscess, Antibiogram, Ibadan, Nigeria, Skin, Swine.