Role of Biocides in Occurrence and Persistence of Biocide-tolerant and Multi-drug Resistant Salmonellae

  • J.J. Medardus Deptartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States & Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
  • R.R. Kazwala Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
  • W.A. Gebreyes Deptartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Biocide, Biocide tolerance, efflux genes, Salmonella

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize the role of biocide interventions in the emergence of biocide-tolerant Salmonella, its co-selective association with multidrug-resistant Salmonella and the association with carriage of specific efflux gene markers. Salmonella isolates were detected in 13.9% (208/1,497) and 6.7% (98/1,468) of swine barn drag swab samples at pre- and post-disinfection with biocide, whereas, Salmonella isolates were detected in 17.2% (1,180/6,842) and 7.1% (431/6,093) of the early and late finishing pigs, respectively. Barn-level prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolates recovered from the floor swab samples was 92.3% (1,503 of 1,628), whereas, the barn-level prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolates recovered from the fecal samples was 98.02% (4,415 of 4,504). A total of 348 Salmonella isolates from swine barns formerly disinfected with Biosentry and 428 from swine barns disinfected with Synergize were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing for Biosentry and Synergize, respectively. In addition, selected Salmonella isolates were also genotyped to identify the carriage of quaternary ammonium compound (qac) tolerance genes. Interestingly, 22.9% (98 of 428) of Salmonella isolates from swine barns disinfected with Synergize carried the qac gene and the 86% of isolates that carried the qac gene also carried attenuated qacEΔ1. Nearly 31% (109 of 348) of Salmonella isolates from swine barns disinfected with Biosentry carried the qac gene. Furthermore, out of 109 Salmonella isolates that carried qac genes, 94.5% of the isolates contained attenuated qacEΔ1 gene, whereas 72.5% of the isolates carrying qacEΔ1 gene also carried class 1 integrons which is associated with both antibiotic and quaternary ammonium compound resistance. Although biocides are effective in limiting the growth, load and the colonization of bacterial pathogens, this study underscores the contribution of biocides in selective pressure towards antibiotic resistant in Salmonella

Published
2020-07-31
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 2714-206X
print ISSN: 0856-1451