Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>The Journal publishes &nbsp;peer reviewed papers &nbsp;with the aim of sharing new developments in the agricultural and environmental sciences&nbsp; which include forestry, fisheries, livestock, crops, environment, biotechnology, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering.</p> <p>The readership of the Journal include students, researchers, extension workers, policy makers, academia ,investors and entrepreneurs.</p> National Agricultural Research Organisation en-US Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1026-0919 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies; that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.</p><p>Copyrights for the papers published in UJAS are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the responsibility of the author to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p><p class="Default">The journal has an online Open Access policy licensed according to Creative Commons Share-Alike Non-Commercial.</p> Evaluation of Genomic Prediction Algorithms for Reducing Selection and Breeding Cycles in Shea Tree <i>(Vitellaria Paradoxa)</i> <p>The focus of this study was to determine the genomic prediction (GP) algorithms with the highest prediction accuracies for reducing the breeding and selection cycles in &lt;i&gt;Vitellaria paradoxa&lt;/i&gt;. The efficiency of the GP algorithms were compared to evaluate five Shea tree growth traits in 708 genotypes with 30734 Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNPs) markers, which were reduced to 27063 after removing duplicates. Five hundred forty-nine (77.54%) Shea tree training population and 159 (22.46%) training population were genotyped for 30734 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotyped for five Shea tree growth traits. We built a model using phenotype and marker data from a training population by optimizing its genomic prediction accuracy for effectiveness of GS. The phenotype and marker data were used for cross validation of the prediction accuracies of the different models. Prediction accuracies varied among the genomic prediction algorithms based on the five phenotypic traits. We determined the best genomic algorithm that is more suitable for reduction of selection and breeding cycles in &lt;i&gt;Vitellaria paradoxa&lt;/i&gt;. The GP algorithms were evaluated and we conclude that rrBLUP is the best for improving the prediction accuracy for reducing the breeding cycle in Shea tree.</p> Juventine Odoi Hendre Prasad Arfang Badji Ronald Kitiyo Alfred A. Ozimati Alfred A. Ozimati Paul Gibson Richard Edema Samson Gwali Thomas L. Odong Copyright (c) 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 21 1 1 12 10.4314/ujas.v21i1.1 Effects of Wetland Policy on Conservation and Household Incomes in Kabale District, Uganda <p>This study aimed at establishing why wetland degradation persists in Uganda despite Ramsar and other wetland policy interventions. The objectives were to assess local peoples’ attitudes towards wetlands; assess the level of illegal activities in wetlands; and assess the contribution of wetland management programs and projects to household incomes. We used a cross-sectional mixed methods design and targeted 120 respondents, including residents and opinion leaders in Kabale<br>District. The study showed that fifty three percent of the respondents perceived wetlands favourably. Fifty seven percent of the respondents reported illegal activities of burning followed by hunting at 20%. Twenty two percent did not get any monetary income from wetlands while 43 percent reported getting between shillings 10,000-100,000 annually. Only 12 percent reported getting above 1 million shillings. Illegal activities persisted because of land shortage and being desperate due to lack of other alternatives. In Kabale District, only Nyamuriro wetland project, covering Ikumba and Muko sub counties, implemented wetland restoration. We concluded that the wetland policy has had little impact on household incomes and illegal activities in wetlands. We recommended continuous sensitisation.</p> Julius Masanyu Joseph Oonyu Copyright (c) 2021 National Agricultural Research Organisation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 21 1 13 23 10.4314/ujas.v21i1.2 Distributional Patterns of Gastropoda Upstream and Downstream of Bujagali Hydropower Project along the Upper Victoria Nile <p>To better understand the gastropod community dynamics of fresh water snails in the Upper Victoria Nile (UVN), the spatial and temporal abundance changes in gastropod assemblage were assessed biannually from April 2006 to April 2021 at three transects. Biannual abundances of gastropoda were obtained by a ponar grab to examine changes in their community structure in relation to Bujagali Hydropower Project (BHP). The gastropod community consisted of nine species<br>belonging to five families (Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae and Planorbidae). Pulmonate species registered five species &lt;i&gt;(Anisus natalensis, Gyraulus sp., Segmentorbis sp., Bulinus sp. and Biomphalaria chaonomphola)&lt;/i&gt;. Two of the pulmonates &lt;i&gt;(Bulinus sp. and B. chaonomphala)&lt;/i&gt; are schistomiasis vectors. The pulmonates &lt;i&gt;(A. natalensis, Gyraulus sp., Segmentorbis sp.)&lt;/i&gt; were rare and intermittently occurred with abundances up to 47 ind.m-2. Four prosobranch species &lt;i&gt;(Gabbia humerosa, Pila ovata, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya unicolor)&lt;/i&gt; were encountered. Of these prosobranchs, &lt;i&gt;P. ovata&lt;/i&gt; was the rarest while &lt;i&gt;M. tuberculata&lt;/i&gt; and &lt;i&gt;B. unicolor&lt;/i&gt; were the commonest. The gastropod community in the UVN was characterised by prosobranchs-dominated abundance which over the 16-year monitoring period often registered peak densities of &gt; 1000 ind.m<sup>2</sup>. The inter-site Percent Similarity Index (PSI) (94-100%) indicated a high degree of similarity of gastropod community across the sites.</p> Stephen Sekiranda Pabire Gandhi Copyright (c) 2021 National Agricultural Research Organisation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 21 1 25 40 10.4314/ujas.v21i1.3 Drought Stress and Adaptation Strategies in Kumi and Amuria Districts of Uganda <p>This study investigated smallholder farmers’ drought adaptation strategies in 246 randomly selected households in Kumi and Amuria districts of Teso sub region of Uganda. Primary and secondary data were collected, the former through individual interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interview and the latter through document review. The results revealed that drought stress was above -4 kilo pascal within the period 2006–2016. The adaptation strategies applied<br>included cultivation of food crops that can be preserved and offering of labour on other people’s farms as a survival strategy. Promotion of early warning mechanisms; easy access to farm inputs; group formation and consolidation; and affordable irrigation technology are recommended to enhance farmers’ resilience</p> Harriet Kabasindi Moses Isabirye Juventine Odoi Copyright (c) 2021 National Agricultural Research Organisation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 21 1 41 56 10.4314/ujas.v21i1.4 Dietary Fishmeal Substitution by Peanut-Based Meals in Nile Tilapia <i>(Oreochromis Niloticus L.) </i>: Effect of Pond Water Quality on Biomass Production <p>A 16 week experiment was conducted in earthen ponds in Iganga District of Eastern Uganda to investigate the effect of water quality on biomass production in Nile tilapia &lt;i&gt;(Oreochromis niloticus L.)&lt;/i&gt; fed on peanut-based meals as alternative dietary fishmeal. Iso-nitrogenous diets containing 30% and 25% Crude Protein were applied for the first 12 weeks and last four weeks while the control was a local diet for Nile tilapia of 25% Crude Protein throughout the experiment. Treatments included the fishmeal-based diet and two peanut-based diets; peanut meal-based diet and mixed meal-based diet. Each of the 16 pond units measuring 3.0 x 4.0 x 1.0 were stocked with 48 fish fingerlings of 21.7 grams mean weight. Significant differences (p≤0.05) in mean values occurred among targeted parameters; pH, Dissolved Oxygen, nitrite nitrogen and unionized ammonia with exception to temperature. Apart from the unionized ammonia, the significant variations (p≤0.05) in water quality parameters did not significantly affect (p≥0.05) biomass production because they were maintained in suitable ranges for Nile tilapia.</p> Musita Augustus Apollo Erick Ogello John Stephen Balirwa Samuel Bassa Copyright (c) 2021 National Agricultural Research Organisation 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 21 1 57 67 10.4314/ujas.v21i1.5