Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>The Journal publishes &nbsp;peer reviewed papers &nbsp;with the aim of sharing new developments in the agricultural and environmental sciences&nbsp; which include forestry, fisheries, livestock, crops, environment, biotechnology, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering.</p> <p>The readership of the Journal include students, researchers, extension workers, policy makers, academia ,investors and entrepreneurs.</p> National Agricultural Research Organisation en-US Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1026-0919 <p>Submission of a manuscript implies; that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.</p><p>Copyrights for the papers published in UJAS are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the responsibility of the author to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p><p class="Default">The journal has an online Open Access policy licensed according to Creative Commons Share-Alike Non-Commercial.</p> Cooking Characteristics of Three Parboiled Rice Varieties Locally Produced in Gogounou and Banikoara in North-Benin <p>Abstract. The cooking ability of three (03) parboiled varieties (IR 841, <em>Oroukokey</em> and <em>Burkina</em>) was evaluated. The method used consisted of four (04) steps: (i) Experimental determination of rice cooking parameters, (ii) evaluation of the three cooking rice methods, (iii) physical quality assessment of the three cooked rice samples and (iv) validation of the best rice cooking method by the women processors. At the laboratory level, results obtained show that for 5 g of every rice variety tested, the variety IR 841 cooked more quickly than the two other<br />varieties with a cooking time of 24±2 min for IR 841 and 31.25±1.25min and 29±1min respectively for the Oroukokey and Burkina varieties. As for the swelling capacity, the <em>Oroukokey</em> varieties and <em>Burkina</em> swelled more (3.31±0.15% and 3.77±0.34% respectively) than IR 841 variety (2.99±0.22%). Results of the three cooking methods tested with the restaurants, showed that the double cooking and the steam cooking was the most suitable method for cooking of IR 841 whereas the direct cooking method was most preferred for the <em>Oroukokey</em> and <em>Burkina</em> varieties. In conclusion, the double cooking methods was recommended for IR 841while direct cooking method was recommended for the <em>Oroukokey</em> and <em>Burkina</em> varieties.</p><p><br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> IR 841, <em>Oroukokey</em>, <em>Burkina</em>, local, appropriate preparation.</p> Valère Dansou Paul A. F. Houssou Raoul K. Balogoun Abel B. Hotegni Copyright (c) 2018-03-15 2018-03-15 18 2 83 92 10.4314/ujas.v18i2. Land Use Change using Geospatial Techniques: The Case of AwojaWatershed in Ngora District in Eastern Uganda <p>This study used remote sensing and Geo-graphical Information System (GIS) to assess the status of Awoja watersheds in Ngora district of Eastern Uganda. Landsat ETM Images covering the whole of Ngora district and part of Lake Kyoga of two time periods was carried out in the period April to July 2015. This was<br />acquired using USGS Earth Explorer. The images were processed and enhanced with ERDAS 2014 software to aid information extraction and analysis. Land cover change analysis was performed using ENVI 5.3 software. Supervised classification method with maximum likelihood algorithm was performed to obtain land use/ cover types. Five land use/cover types were identified: open water, wetland, tree cover, agriculture and built up area. The findings indicate a fivefold increase in built up area by 154.27km2 (i.e. 375%) and open water increased by 8.7 km2 (i.e. 55.33%). Wetland, tree cover and agriculture reduced in area by -1.0km2 (i.e. 5.1%), - 48.07 km2 (i.e. 34.46%) and -114.0km2 (i.e. 51.05%), respectively. These changes mainly resulted from deforestation, wetland encroachment, poor attitude and over population. Unless, appropriate watershed restoration strategies are designed through afforestation, law enforcement on culprits, continuous sensitisation of the watershed community on the causes of degradation, the over 1,700,000 individuals whose livelihoods depend on Awoja<br />will continue to suffer the effects of degradation. There is need to advocate for non-consumptive projects as alternative sources of income.</p><p> </p><p><br /><strong>Keywords: </strong>Remote sensing, GIS, Watersheds.</p> Sarah Akello Nelson Turyahabwe Paul Okullo Jacob Godfrey Agea Copyright (c) 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 18 2 93 101 10.4314/ujas.v18i2. Use of Artificial Diets with Plant Material to evaluate Banana Cultivars for Resistance to Cosmopolites sordidus <p>Artificial diets rapidly establish the effectiveness of chemical-based control strategies. Diets permit preliminary evaluation of active compounds, study in-vitro larval growth cycles that are usually inaccessible and produce uniform large consistent numbers of insects as needed. With no known artificial diet, banana weevils, have always been reared on field-collected banana rhizome (corm). This study, therefore, developed and examined the effect of commercial diet recipes fortified with susceptible banana corm powder on weevil growth and development. Subsequently, corm powders from different banana cultivars were also evaluated for weevil performance. Successful laboratory rearing of the weevils to adult stage on diet was achieved in 48 days compared to 36 days in the natural banana stem. The difference in weevil larvae performance reared different corm powder, presented a novel screening method for banana genotypes. For example genotypes, Culcatta-4 (AA), Cavendish (AAA) and Kayinja (ABB) showed 0-35% of adult emergences compared to 65% in susceptible genotypes. The diet developed can be used to perform rapid bioassay experimentation to screen potential candidate proteins or molecules for a transgenic approach. It has also shown potential for rapid screening of genotypes for resistance.</p><p> </p><p><br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Resistant banana, Laboratory weevil rearing, Resistance screening.</p> Elyeza Bakaze Andrew Kiggundu Wilberforce Tushemereirwe Copyright (c) 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 18 2 103 109 10.4314/ujas.v18i2. Characterising the Coffee-Banana Agroforestry Systems: an Entry Point for Promoting Coffee and Banana Growing in mid-Northern Uganda <p>This study was conducted in the mid-Northern Ugandan districts of Nwoya, Gulu, Lira, Apach and Oyam to characterise the coffee-banana agroforestry systems. Thirty fields with coffee-banana agroforestry systems were selected and the level of field and crop management determined. Additionally, five coffee and banana plants were randomly selected and assessed for pests and diseases. All fields had Robusta coffee type whereas cooking bananas were the dominant clone (45%). Field management was limited. More than 80% of the fields had no bands, trenches or cover-crops. Most of the fields were lowly weeded (46.7%) and mulched (60%). Intercropping was low with 20% having maize or cassava. Similarly, most fields were lowly inter-planted with trees (40%) with only 28 tree/shrub species and dominated by fruit trees; namely oranges (70%), mangoes (63.3%) and pawpaw (56.7%) of the total number of tree species observed in the systems. Generally, 40% of coffee fields had not been de-suckered, pruned or changed cycle. However, at least 35% of the coffee fields were highly pruned and their cycle changed. For bananas, more than 70% of the fields were not de-suckered, propped or their corms removed, but 63% of them had been de-leafed and de-budded at a low to moderate level. Leaf skeletonisers and coffee leaf rust were the most observed pest (77.3%) and disease (15.3%) respectively. Pest damage was limited in bananas, though black Sigatoka was the commonest disease observed (56%). It is concluded that the region has embraced the systems but there is need for farmers to be provided with the right species of coffee, banana and trees.</p><p><br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Agroforestry-systems, cooking-bananas, Robusta-coffee.</p> Godfrey H. Kagezi P. Kucel J. Kobusinge L. L. Nakibuule F. Akwatulira I. Perfecto Copyright (c) 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 18 2 111 121 10.4314/ujas.v18i2. Science Communication Models for Agricultural Transformation in Uganda <p>This paper focuses on the models of science communication used to promote and support use of agricultural research outputs in Uganda. It also explores quasi-novel approaches of making agricultural research more visible to end-users through strategic communications and extension models that are hoped to increase adoption rates in Uganda. Surveys, literature review and key informants were used to evaluate the communication efforts by the National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) - the apex body for agriculture research in Uganda. The findings indicated that 31% of respondents perceived NARO as a source of poor products and services. This has resulted in distrust, which is largely attributed to use of ineffective models of communication used in the past. Different approaches of communication and extension are proposed as flagship models that can be implemented through NARO’s projects, private extension partners and, in some cases, through partnership with the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS). These communication and outreach strategies can improve understanding of the technologies, and consequently influence adoption of NARO technologies for improvement of the agricultural sector.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Agricultural research, Extension, NARO Uganda, Outreach</p> Anita Tibasaaga Zawedde B. Mugwanya Copyright (c) 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 18 2 123 131 10.4314/ujas.v18i2. Heavy Metals in Heterobranchus Longifilis (Cuvier And Valenciennes, 1840) Cultured in Earthen Ponds in Selected Communities in Warri Metropolis, Nigeria <p>The concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in <em>Heterobranchus longifilis</em> (Mean total length= 40.52 cm; mean weight=563.25 g) cultured in earthen ponds in Warri, Nigeria, were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric technique in order to provide baseline data and to ascertain the suitability of such fish for consumption. The mean concentrations of metals in <em>H. longifilis,</em> ranged from 0.13 mg/kg for Cd in January to 72.51 mg/kg for Cu in June with significant differences (p&lt;0.05) observed in the mean concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in fish between months. The mean concentrations of metals in <em>H.</em><br /><em>longifilis,</em> ranged from 0.12 mg/kg for Cd at Jeddo to 69.27 mg/kg for Cu at Ubeji with significant differences (p&lt;0.05) observed in the mean concentration of Zn in fish between stations. The bioaccumulation quotient (BQ) values ranged from 0.50 for Cd at Jeddo to 37.24 for Cu at Oboroke while the hazard quotient (HQ) ranged from 0.39 for Zn to 3.43 for Pb. The maximum acceptable risk (MAR) values anged from 0.02 for Pb at Ekpan to 6.29 for Zn at Ubeji while the estimated average daily intake (EADI) of heavy metals ranged from 0.09 mg/person/day for Cd to 36.13 mg/person/day for Cu. It was concluded that Cd, Cu and Pb were the metals that presented a potential risk to the consuming public and that the heavy metal content in earthen ponds should be routinely monitored in order to keep metal levels within safe limits.</p><p><br /><strong>Keywords:</strong> Heavy metals, Hazard quotient, <em>Heterobranchus longifilis</em></p> Soje O. M Wangboje Oguzie F. A. Ufua J. Copyright (c) 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 18 2 67 82 10.4314/ujas.v18i2.