Spatial and Seasonal Concentration of Glyphosate, Nitrate, and Phosphate in Kuti Stream, Yaba, Abaji Area Council, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

  • D. Echude
  • S. I. Ahmad
  • T. I. Egbeja
  • L. S. Egwu
  • C. I. Umoru
  • I. A. Abubakar
  • J. A. Adakole
  • C. E. Mbah
Keywords: Agrochemicals, eco-friendly, eutrophication, permissible, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)


This study determines the concentration of glyphosate (C3H8NO5P), nitrate (NO3-), and phosphate (PO43-) in Kuti stream, Abaji area council, Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria, for twelve months (January-December, 2019) at four sampling stations that were 500 m apart. Samples were collected monthly during the morning hours (06.00-10.00 h) from a depth of 5–10 cm below the water surface using high-density polyethylene bottles and analyzed by adopting standard protocols. Samples analyzed for C3H8NO5P concentration were pooled quarterly with the highest (0.27±0.01 mg/l) concentration observed in July-September at station 2, lowest (0.02±0.01mg/l) in January-March at station 4. Seasonal concentration differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05), rainy season had 0.12mg/l, dry season had 0.06 mg/l. NO3 - and PO43- had their highest concentration (1.82±0.01mg/l; 0.87±0.01mg/l) in June at station 2 and 1, lowest (0.23±0.06mg/l; 0.21±0.05mg/l) in January and December at station 4 and 3. Rainy season had high concentration (1.82±0.01mg/l; 0.87±0.01 mg/l) of NO3- and PO43- compared to dry season (0.23±0.01 mg/l; 0.21±0.01mg/l). Pairwise correlation coefficients show a strong positive relationship (r=0.53/1.00) between PO43- and C3H8NO5P. The mean concentration of C3H8NO5P, NO3- and PO43- (0.09±0.01 mg/l; 0.59±0.04 mg/l; 0.37±0.02 mg/l) were below the maximum contamination limit (MCL) of 0.7 mg/l, 50 mg/l and 5.0 mg/l by USEPA, WHO and NERN. The high concentrations observed in the rainy season and station 2 were linked to runoff and riparian agriculture, though their mean concentrations were low if not monitored, will increase and become harmful to aquatic and human lives, therefore, conservation farming was suggested.


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