Frequency and Risk Factors of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Contrast Procedures in a Nigerian Tertiary Centre
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a significant yet underestimated problem in clinical practice. The increasing use of contrast media in diagnostic and interventional procedures over the last 30years has resulted in CIN becoming the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure (ARF) in developed countries. Despite this, there is still a paucity of data on the incidence of CIN following intravenous contrast media especially in developing countries.
The goals of this study were to determine the frequency and risk factors of CIN amongst patients receiving intravenous contrast in a tertiary health institution.
This is a hospital-based prospective observational study. One hundred and eighty (180) consenting patients were recruited consecutively over a 6-month period. Venous blood and urine were collected for haematocrit, serum urea, electrolytes and creatinine estimation and urinalysis, before contrast exposure and up to 72 hours post-exposure.
The frequency of CIN was 35.9% and one patient required haemodialysis. Baseline renal insufficiency, anaemia and age >55 years were significant risk factors for CIN and predictive of CIN in univariate but not multivariate analysis.
Keywords: Contrast-induced Nephropathy, risk factors, frequency, contrast media.