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West African Journal of Medicine

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The Significance Mild Renal Dysfunction in Chronic Heart Failure

AT Oyedeji, MO Balogun, AA Akintomide, RA Adebayo, OE Ajayi, S Ogunyemi, EA Ajayi

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a major public health concern. Prediction models in heart failure have employed echocardiography and other advanced laboratory parameters in predicting the risk of mortality.However, most of the patients in the resource poor economies still do not have easy access to these advanced technology.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and echocardiographic correlates of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) in the presence or mild renal disease (MRD).
METHODS: One hundred CHF patients were categorized based on their estimated glomerular filtration rates into either normal renal function or MRD. The clinical and echocardiographic variables of both groups were compared.
RESULTS: There were 38 females and 62 males with an overall mean age of 54 years. A significantly greater proportion of patients with mild renal disease presented in New York Heart Association classes 3 and 4 (82.9% vs 27.1%). Patients with MRD had echocardiographic findings of a significantly larger left atrial dimension, lower ejection fraction and fractional shortening and shorter deceleration time. A significantly greater proportion of patients with mild renal disease also had moderate- severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and grades 2-3 diastolic dysfunction compared to patients without mild renal disease. Patients with MRD also exhibited a significantly greater degree of deterioration in the fractional shortening and ejection fraction compared to non-MRD patients. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that a low ejection fraction and a low fractional shortening were significantly associated with MRD.
CONCLUSION: Identification of MRD in chronic heart failure patients using the estimated glomerular filtration rate is valuable in resource poor countries. The presence of MRD in CHF is associated with poor left ventricular function and increased deterioration of ventricular function.

Keywords: Heart failure, mild renal dysfunction, ventricular function.

WAJM 2011; 30(6): 442–446



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