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Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a high-strength coal gasification wastewater stream

E Rava, E Chirwa, P Allison, M van Niekerk, MP Augustyn

Abstract


The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and actual wastewater composition. The composition of the influent and effluent was studied to determine which compounds were not removed by hydrolysis (bacterial activity) and how this correlated to the suspended and fixed biomass activity, COD and phenol removal. A H-FFBR with 12 g∙m−3 attached biomass and 440 mg∙ℓ−1 suspended biomass achieved 78% phenol removal and 49% COD removal but insignificant removal of nitrogenous compounds. During the operation period, fixed biomass concentration was higher than the suspended biomass. Parameters such as pH, phenols, alkalinity, metal ions, conductivity, total dissolved solids and aeration rate affected the fixed biofilm properties such as adhesion, thickness and structure. It can be concluded that the composition of the effluent had a direct effect on the fixed biomass properties and thus a direct effect on the removal of phenols, COD and nitrogenous compounds in the wastewater.

Keywords: ammonia stripping, AnoxKaldness, coal gasification, fixed-biofilm reactor, hydantoins, phenosolvan, Pseudomonas, refinery effluent, thiocyanate




http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v41i4.02
AJOL African Journals Online