The use and disposal of greywater in the non-sewered areas of South Africa: Part 1 – Quantifying the greywater generated and assessing its quality

  • K Carden
  • N Armitage
  • K Winter
  • O Sichone
  • U Rivett
  • J Kahonde
Keywords: greywater strategies, greywater management options, greywater generation, greywater disposal, greywater use, non-sewered areas


Greywater has been identified as a key area of research in South Africa owing to the fact that service delivery in low-income areas largely consists of on-site dry sanitation with communal water points where greywater has the potential to create a host of environmental and health problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the use and disposal of greywater in non-sewered areas in South Africa and this included developing options for the management thereof, both in terms of reducing health and environmental risks as well as possibly providing benefits through controlled reuse. This paper reports on observations made in the course of a two-year study that examined greywater management in 39 low-income non-sewered settlements situated in 6 of the 9 provinces. Proposals are made for the selection of various greywater management options as well as guidance for the planning for, and handling of, greywater from low-income areas.

Keywords: greywater quantities, greywater generation, greywater quality, non-sewered areas


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eISSN: 0378-4738