Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj <p><em>Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal</em> contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians.</p>This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers and publishing from 2016.<em></em> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. racheljestewart@gmail.com (Dr R Stewart) solodhliwayo1@yahoo.co.uk (Dr S. Dhliwayo) Wed, 07 Mar 2018 16:36:26 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Real-time PCR for detection of <i>Theileria equi</i> and <i>Babesia caballi</i> parasites in ticks https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167938 <p>The tick, Dermacentor reticulatus is a vector for <em>Babesia caballi</em> and <em>Theileria equi</em> which cause equine babesiosis and theileriosis respectively. This study aimed to develop a real-time PCR screening test for <em>Babesia caballi</em> and<em> Theileria equi</em> in ticks. Adult <em>D. reticulatus</em> were collected from De Panne, Belgium. Nested PCR was used with<em> B. caballi</em> and <em>T. equi</em> specific adjacent hybridisation FRET probes to develop a qualitative real-time PCR. The test was used to screen DNA extracts from collected ticks. Probe sequences were based on differences in the 18S rRNA gene of the pathogens. DNA extracts from known <em>Theileria</em> and <em>Babesia</em> spp. were used as positive controls. Using melting curve analysis probes were able to detect and distinguish the<em> B. caballi</em> and <em>T. equi</em> positive controls. None of the tick samples tested positive for <em>T. equi</em> and<em> B. caballi</em> but one sample was positive for <em>T. parva</em>. This test is suitable for application in epidemiological surveillance of equine babesiosis and theileriosis.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dermacentor reticulatus; <em>Babesia caballi</em>;<em> Theileria equi</em>; real-time PCR; FRET probe</p> Tatenda Chiuya, Colin Musara Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167938 Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs in urban Harare and selected rural areas in Zimbabwe https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167939 <p>A total of 246 faecal samples were collected between October 2015 to February 2016, 154 from stray dogs in Harare and 92 from rural dogs in Arcturas, Goromonzi and Christon Bank. The samples were examined by flotation and sedimentation methods and helminth eggs identified and EPG counted. Of the 246 samples, 157 (63.8%) were positive for helminths. Urban stray dogs (58.4%) had a significantly (p = 0.03) lower prevalence compared to rural dogs (72.8%). Nine species were identified and <em>Ancylostoma species</em> (55.7%), <em>Dipylidium caninum</em> (15.0%) and <em>Toxocara canis</em> (8.1%) had the highest prevalences. The other species were <em>Toxascaris leonina</em> (1.6%), <em>Alaria</em> species (1.6%), <em>Spirocerca lupi</em> (0.8%), <em>Trichuris vulpis</em> (0.8%), <em>Capillaria species</em> (0.4%) and <em>Ascaris suum</em> (0.4%) and were all found only from rural dogs. This is the first report documenting presence of <em>Alaria</em> species in Zimbabwe. Public education on control of zoonotic canine helminthosis is recommended.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Intestinal helminths, urban stray dogs, rural dogs, Harare</p> Ashley-Kate Davidson, Kalnisha Bhikha, George D. Vassilev, Solomon Dhliwayo Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167939 Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution of <i>Lactobacillus plantarum</i> in fermented dairy products to food safety and public health https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167940 Strains of <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> recently isolated from artisanal fermented milks and milk products include <em>L. plantarum</em> AMA-K, <em>L. plantarum</em> KLDS1.0391, <em>L. plantarum</em> ST27,<em> L. plantarum</em> LL441, <em>L. plantarum</em> ST8K and <em>L. plantarum</em> BR12. The isolates exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against saprophytic and enteropathogenic bacteria which include<em> Listeria monocytogenes</em>,<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>,<em> Escherichia coli</em>,<em> Clostridium difficile</em>, <em>Clostridium perfringens</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>,<em> Enterococcus faecalis</em>, <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, <em>Salmonella enterica</em> and <em>Shigella flexneri</em>. The broad antimicrobial spectrum affords ample opportunity for use of<em> L. plantarum</em> strains as food preservatives and probiotics in dairy products. <em>In vivo</em>, health benefits of <em>L. plantarum</em> reported in humans include increased fermentation in the hindgut, reduced intestinal load of diarrhoea-causing<em> Enterobacteriacea</em>, predominance of ingested <em>L. plantarum</em> over enteric pathogens in the intestinal microflora and reduced incidence of <em>Clostridium difficile</em>-associated diarrhoea. Colin Musara Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167940 Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Compound oblique distal diaphyseal tibiotarsal fracture in a 5 year old peacock https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167941 A five year old peacock presented with complete lameness of the right hind limb was diagnosed of having a compound oblique comminuted fracture of distal one-third of right tibiotarsal bone based on radiographic findings. The fracture was first managed with plaster cast device. However, the bird was presented three weeks later due to lamness on the same leg. Open reduction and internal fixation with a bone plate was done. The bird was premedicated with intramuscular injection of butorphanol (0.5mg/kg) and Xylazine (2mg/kg), while general anaesthesia was induced and maintained with midazolam (0.3mg/kg) and Ketamine (5mg/kg) intramuscularly. Following open reduction, the fracture was reduced and immobilized with improvised paediatric reconstruction plate. Post reduction radiograph revealed adequate reduction and proper implant position. The fracture healed without any complication. Although materials used for canine practice could be adapted for use in birds, the smaller size of some avian patients is a major limitation. R.A. Ajadi, F.E. Ojeblenu, M.T. Onadeji, F.E. Sobayo, O.S. Aduloju, O.M. Nasir Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167941 Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Imperforate anus in a male Friesian-Holstein calf: Case report and review of literature https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167942 A case of imperforate anus in a 3-day old male Friesian-Holstein calf was presented and treated in Bugesera district, Rwanda. The condition has rarely been reported in Africa. A brief review of the etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, surgical and post-surgical management and classification of <em>anorectal malformations</em> (ARM) as they occur in man and domestic animals with emphasis on imperforate anus is hereby presented. We focus on the usage of the terms <em>imperforate anus</em>, <em>atresia ani</em> and make a distinction between these terms and other ARMs. With emphasis placed on the nomenclature of ARMs and the distinction between usage of the terms imperforate anus and atresia ani, we propose that the two terms be viewed as different and standard scientific nomenclature of Type I –IV ARM be used consistently to avoid confusion. If the terms <em>atresia ani</em> and<em> imperforate anus</em> should be used, they must be used correctly and consistently. Borden Mushonga, Samuel Nsengimana, Alaster Samkange, Erick Kandiwa, Gervais Habarugira Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/zvj/article/view/167942 Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000