Potentials of non-edible Abrus precatorius seed oil towards biodiesel production

  • JC Obeta
  • CV Agu
  • OU Njoku
  • CC Okonkwo
  • EG Anaduaka

Abstract

Abrus precatorius seed oil is not edible and possesses lethal toxicological properties; hence, alternative use as low cost feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated. The n-hexane extracted oil was characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and subsequently transesterified using 1% sodium hydroxide at 60°C to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel produced had acceptable quality following characterization of its fuel properties. The relative density was found to be 0.889 with kinematic viscosity of 3.34 mm2/s within limits of Thailand biodiesel fuel standard. The acid value was 0.281 mg KOH/g, iodine value 52.43 mgI2/g, peroxide value 3.45 mEq/kg, saponification value 227.8 mg KOH/g and 2.87% free fatty acid content. The flash point and the cetane number were 137°C and 58.3, respectively while the heat of combustion was 38.28 MJ/Kg. The low temperature operability properties of A. precatorius seed biodiesel determined by parameters such as cloud point, pour point and cold-filter plugging point were - 2, 1 and - 4°C, respectively. The sulfated ash value and refractive index were found to be 0.09% and 1.457, respectively. GC analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters profile revealed 50.86 and 49.1%, saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), respectively. A percentage FAME yield of 86.1%; with higher content of methyl palmitoleate (31.94%) and a lowest value for methyldecanoate (1.27%) was obtained. Although a n-hexane oil yield was low (2.52% w/w), the results show that Abrus seed oil derived biodiesel has commercially acceptable fuel properties and may be suitable as fuel for internal combustion engine.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Abrus precatorius, oil, non-edible oil, fatty acid methyl ester

African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(44) 4226-4235

Author Biographies

JC Obeta
Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
CV Agu
Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria; Biotechnology and fermentation Group, The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, United States
OU Njoku
Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
CC Okonkwo
Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria; Biotechnology and fermentation Group, The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, United States
EG Anaduaka
Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Published
2015-10-15
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1684-5315