Rate of re-infection of tissue culture-derived Latin American and East and Southern African cassava genotypes by mosaic disease
The rate of reinfection by cassava mosaic disease (CMD) in initially virus-free cassava plants of two Latin American and twelve East and Southern African cassava genotypes grown was studied under high disease pressure conditions. An improved clone, TMS 4(2)1425, from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture was used as check. The virus-free plants had been produced through meristem-tip culture and multiplied in a pest-proof screen house. The genotypes were planted in single row plots of 5 plants each, arranged in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and spacing of 1 × 1 m2. Incidence and severity of CMD on the genotypes were assessed weekly, from 4 to 16 weeks after planting (WAP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the cassava mosaic virus were carried out using young leaves collected randomly at 15, 16 and 17 WAP from plants both with and without symptoms. Six genotypes had > 60% CMD incidence at 4 WAP; by 7 WAP, 12 genotypes had > 60% incidence. Only Kigoma red, Kiroba, and UKG-41-6 were not
infected at 4 WAP while Mbudumali had 90% incidence at this time. At 16 WAP, ten genotypes had 100% CMD incidence; Kigoma Red was 39.6% infected. ELISA detected a mean CMD reinfection rate of 66.6%; PCR detected 69%. A high negative and significant (P< 0.01) correlation (r = - 0.70) was established between CMD severity and storage root yield.
Keywords: Virus-free cassava genotypes, tissue culture, rate of reinfection, cassava mosaic disease