Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)
Food quality and safety are major concern among consumers throughout the world in the context of globalization. Hence, the origin and the history of a food item are of prime interest when food quality is questioned. Precise determination of contamination source relies on the use of efficient and reliable methods. This study was carried out to assess the microbial ecology of fish upon technological treatments using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. Samples of tilapia from Montpellier (South-east of France) and Yagoua (far north of Cameroon) were used for this purpose. The technological treatments applied on fillets were marinade, drying, smoking and deep-freezing. When the 16S rDNA profiles were analysed by multivariate analysis, distinct microbial communities were detected. The band profiles of fish bacteria after each treatment were different and specific. Technological treatments applied on fillets from Montpellier did not have an effect on the biological markers present on the fillets. These bands could be used as specific markers for this region. One of the treatments, the marinade applied on the samples of Yagoua induced the disappearance of some bands on the DGGE profile. In spite of treatment applied on samples, it is possible to recover the geographical origin by using DNA of the bacterial community in fish even if it was treated.
Keywords: Traceability, tilapia, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), bacterial community, technological treatments