Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes

  • Anthony A. Adegoke
  • Anthony I. Okoh
Keywords: Commensal, resistance genes, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia


Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are of particular importance as they sometimes reside as flora on the intact skin and nasal passages of man and farm animals. Studies around the globe have shown them as “friends and foes” especially in immunocompromised individuals as they occur as commensals but sometimes as pathogens that infect, causing morbidity and consequently higher therapeutic cost. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance gene(s) in their genomes and their phenotypic display of resistance make them difficult to control and places a high demand on the assessment of such genes in the bacteria. In doing this, the less considered (commensals) have been described more recently as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes. The transfer of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes from Staphylococcus spp., a Gram positive bacterium to S. maltophilia and Acinetobacter species, Gram negative bacteria confer the resilience to control measures that is peculiar with the former on the latter. This attribute in Acinetobacter spp. and S. maltophilia have encouraged their inclusion in drug screening research. Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be embraced to foster appropriate measures against their spread.

Keyword: Commensal, resistance genes, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1684-5315