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Oleic and linoleic acids are major fatty acids in peanut determining the quality and shelf-life of peanut products. A better understanding on the inheritance of these characters is an important for high-oleic breeding programs. The objective of this research was to determine the gene actions for oleic acid, linoleic acid, the ratio of oleic to linoleic acids (O/L ratio) and percentage oil (% oil) in peanut. Georgia-02C, SunOleic 97R (high-oleic genotypes) and KKU 1 (low-oleic genotypes) were used as parents to generate P1, P2, F2, F3, BC11S and BC12S. The entries were planted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in the rainy season (2008) and the dry season (2008/2009). Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) was used to analyze fatty acid compositions. The data were used in generation means analysis to understand gene effects. The differences in season, generation and generation X season interactions were significant for oleic acid in the crosses Georgia-02C X KKU 1 and SunOleic 97R X KKU 1. Additive, dominance and epistasis gene effects were significant for oleic acid, linoleic acid, O/L ratio and % oil. Initial selection can be carried out in early segregating population, and final selection in late generations.
Keywords: Breeding, gene actions, generation mean analysis, groundnut, oil quality