African Journal of Biotechnology

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Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in treatment-naïve adults in Jos, North Central Nigeria

JA Anejo-Okopi, OO Agbaji, PA Agaba, PO Ugoagwu, K Were, H Onywera, P Owiti, SE Isa, N Otecko, AEJ Okwori, J Musa, S Oguche, AS Sagay, JA Idoko, L Nimzing, ED Jatau, OS Olonitola


The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 diversity has an impact on vaccine efficacy and drug resistance. It is important to know the circulating genetic variants and associated drug-resistance mutations in the context of scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients in Jos, North Central Nigeria. Plasma samples were collected from 105 ARV drug-naïve patients enrolled for HIV care at the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) HIV Treatment Center between October 2010 and April 2011. One hundred (100) samples were successfully amplified. Viral subtyping was done using REGA subtyping tool and by phylogenetic analysis using PAUP software. The drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford University HIVdb sequence interpretation algorithm. HIV-1 subtypes identified were; CRF02_AG (48.0%), G (41.0%), CRF06_cpx (6.0%) and A1 (5.0%). 8% of the patients’ isolates had at least one major resistance mutation in the RT gene: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: M41L (1%), K65KR (1%), M184IM (1%), M184V (2%) and T215ADNT (1%), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: K103N (2%), K101E (1%), G190A (1%), P225HP (1%), Y181I (1%), Y188L (1%), and Y181C (1%). Among antiretroviral (ARV) naïve patients in Jos, North Central Nigeria, the common HIV-1 subtypes was CRF_02 and G. And the prevalence of drug resistance mutations was found to be high (8%). Further study and national surveillance will be critically important to understand the clinical impact of transmitted resistance mutations on ART naïve individuals in resource limited settings.

Keywords: HIV-1 subtypes, antiretroviral (ARV), treatment-naïve, drug-resistance, mutation, accessory and polymorphisms, Nigeria

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(17), pp. 2279-2287

AJOL African Journals Online