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African Journal of Biotechnology

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Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape (Bogazkere Cv.) callus culture

Mehmet Karaaslan, Mustafa Ozden, Hasan Vardin, Fatih Mehmet Yilmaz

Abstract


The objective of this study was to improve metabolite accumulation of grape cells by manipulating culture and environmental conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design and conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and light intensity. Wounded grape leaves (Bogazkere cv.) were used for the initiation of callus formation. Grape calli were placed on the modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) media (from 0 to 75% KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 depleted) under various light regimes (from 30 to 120 μmol m-2 s-1), and incubated in a controlled environment for three weeks to stimulate secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The anthocyanin - total phenolic (TP) contents of the calli were determined using chemical analyses and the antioxidant capacity of the cultures were determined by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Higher KH2PO4 depletion and 75 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity favored the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and the other phenolic compounds and resulted in elevated antioxidant capacity in the cultures. However, an increase in KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 depletion resulted in a significant decrease in cell weight. Similar to that, increase of light intensity was correlated with decrease of cell weight. Further elevation of light intensity and KH2PO4 -NH4NO3 depletion was fatal to grape cells and resulted in formation of non-growing waterybrownish cultures. Individual phenolic compounds found in the grape cell cultures were identified using the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) system. Catechin and epicatechin were identified as the most abundant simple phenolic compounds present in the cultures.

Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, callus, grape, phenolic compounds, response surface methodology.

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(25), pp. 3922-3933



AJOL African Journals Online