Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence and exposure factors associated with seropositivity of cattle in north-central, Nigeria

  • Y.S. Wungak
  • B.O. Olugasa
  • O.O. Ishola
  • D.D. Lazarus
  • G.H. Ularamu
Keywords: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), prevalence, endemic, serotypes, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibodies


This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with foot-andmouth disease (FMD) seropositivity in north central, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from February 2013 to April 2014 using 1206 sera from 150 herds collected by multi-stage and random sampling methods. Pre-tested questionnaire were also administered to participating farmers to collect information on the animal herd structure, movement pattern, management system and herds contact at watering points. Samples collected were tested for evidence of FMD antibodies using the 3ABC nonstructural antibodies enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of FMD in North-Central Nigeria was found to be 70.98% (95% CI: 68.37-73.49). FMD seroprevalence was found to be higher in Niger State 85.4% (95% CI: 83.46-88.03) relative to Plateau State 54.2% (95% CI: 50.12-58.16), which was statistically associated with FMD seropositivity (P<0.05). Risk factors such as sex, management system, trans-boundary crossing and herd mixing at the watering point were found to be statistically associated with FMD seropositivity (p<0.05). This confirms that FMD is enzootic in the study area and control of foot and mouth disease in Nigeria using animal movement control and vaccination is therefore advocated.

Keywords: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), prevalence, endemic, serotypes, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibodies


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eISSN: 1684-5315