Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Beneficial effects for healthy and sustainable agriculture
It is unanimously admitted that the chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in modern agriculture create a real environmental and public health problems. One of the promising solutions to substitute these agrochemicals products is the use of bio-resources, including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR focused more and more scientific attention in recent decades. These rhizospheric bacteria colonize actively the root system of plants and improve their growth and yield. The PGPR use different mechanisms of action to promote plant growth. These mechanisms were grouped into three clusters according to the PGPR effects on plant physiology. These groups are as follow: (i) biofertilization including biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, phosphate solubilization, siderophores production and exopolysaccharides production; (ii) phytostimulation including production of indole acetic acid, gibberellins, cytokinins and ethylene; and (ii) biocontrol including induction of systemic resistance, competition for iron, nutrient and space, production of antibiotics, lytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide and volatile compounds. In view of the latest advances in PGPR biotechnology, this paper proposes to do the review on PGPR in rhizosphere and describes the different mechanisms used by PGPR to promote the plants growth and health. In prospect to a healthy and sustainable agriculture, respectful of environment, the PGPR approach revealed as one of the best alternatives.
Keywords: Rhizosphere, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), root colonization, biofertilization, biocontrol, biostimulation, interaction plant-microorganisms, sustainable agriculture