Occurrence of haemolysin antibodies among sickle cell anaemia patients within Calabar metropolis of Nigeria

  • RA Anyanwu
  • AO Emeribe
  • CU Igwe
  • I Ajayi
  • J Akpotuzor
  • KC Lele
  • FO Emelike
Keywords: Haemolysin, sickle cell anaemia, blood transfusion, Calabar.

Abstract

The role of alpha () and beta () haemolysins in blood transfusion has been well documented. However, the occurrence of haemolysins and its attending problems in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients has limited appearance in the literatures especially in black Africa. This study was therefore designed to investigate the occurrence of and haemolysins in SCA patients within Calabar metropolis. A total of 50 normal controls and 54 SCA patients attending the sickle cell clinic of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Cross River State of Nigeria, were screened for haemolysins and quantitated using standard techniques. The distribution of haemolysins in the SCA patients was
(16.7), (11.1) and + (16.7%). Their ABO blood groups were normally distributed in this order O>>A>B>AB (61.1, 20.4, 11.1 and 7.5%, respectively). The occurrence of haemolysin among the O
group was 15.2%, while haemolysin was 12.1% and + haemolysin was 30.3%. Control samples gave non-significantly lower haemolysin values than in SCA patients (P>0.05), but in the same order (, 9.0, , 7.0, and +, 9.0%). The higher prevalence of haemolysins in SCA could be a major limiting factor in donation of blood, blood selection and transfusion into SCA patients. Consequently, greater care should be taken during cross match of blood for SCA patients especially in multiple transfusion procedures.
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