Hydrobiological constraints of trace metals in surface water, coastal sediment and water lily of Calabar River, Nigeria

  • NU Benson
  • JP Essien
  • DE Bassey
Keywords: Trace metals, coastal sediment, Nymphaea lotus, Calabar River Estuary.


Trace metals concentrations in surface water, sediment and water lily (Nymphaea lotus) samples from the banks of Calabar River, a major tributary of Cross River Estuary, Nigeria were determined. The
results revealed average concentrations 0.017, 0.010, 37.08 and 0.025 mg/l, respectively, for As, Cd, Fe and Pb in surface water samples, which exceeded Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA)
maximum guideline values. Elevated levels of heavy metals (As, 1.251 mg/kg; Cd, 0.038 mg/kg; Co, 0.509 mg/kg; Cu, 3.78 mg/kg; Fe, 35.48 mg/kg; Mn, 10.72 mg/kg; Ni, 0.732 mg/kg; Pb, 1.355 mg/kg; V,
0.427 mg/kg; and Zn, 8.665 mg/kg) in sediment samples indicated anthropogenic influences while, measured concentrations in N. lotus were typical of a growing plant.

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eISSN: 1684-5315