Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces
AbstractGroundnut production and utilization in Ghana has tripled in the last decade due to its high nutritive value and the number of uses it can be put into. The chemical quality of seeds of Ghanaian groundnut
are different from those of other countries, however, no previous studies has been done. This study was initiated to examine the nutritional quality of 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana. Dry samples were
examined for oil content, crude protein, total carbohydrate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Results from these analyses showed significant variation between
the parameters measured. Virginia cultivars which belong to subspecies hypogaea had higher oil content (49.7%) than the Spanish and Valencia market types, which belong to subspecies fastigiata (47.3%). The mean protein content of subspecies fastigiata was however higher (25.69%) than subspecies hypogaea (22.78%). The mineral elements examined were substantial in reducing malnutrition especially in young and growing children. Broni fufuo, a Spanish market type had the
highest crude protein content (30.53%) and the least oil content (33.60%) and is idea for products which require more protein and less oil. Substantial genetic variability exists for chemical composition and
nutritional traits which could be utilised for various food preparations and selection for breeding purpose.