RNAi: An emerging field of molecular research
AbstractRNA silencing, named as co-suppression or post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) was found in transgenic plants which was the result of cellular mRNA degradation and silencing of gene expression.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a specific technique using only a few double stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules to stop the expression which has made it one of the important areas in molecular biology. By introducing a gene into the host genome which is highly homologous to an endogenous gene, the RNA silencing is initiated. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is cut by the enzyme “Dicer” producing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which combine with RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC, a protein complex, binds one strand of siRNA with mRNA of native target gene for destruction, resulting in gene silencing. The mechanism of RNAi offers a quick and easy way to determine the function of a gene. In this review, we discuss the history, components, mechanism and the application of RNA interference.