Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers
Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize. Genetic diversity evaluation of germplasm is the basis of improvement in wheat. In the present study genetic diversity of 10 varieties of wheat (T. aestivum) were analyzed using 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets. To estimate the genetic diversity among the genotypes, bivariate data matrix was generated and genetic distances were calculated using unweighted pair group of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) procedure. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was observed among the wheat varieties with average genetic distances ranged from 16 to 67%. SSR primer gdm-3, gdm-19, gdm-61, gdm-62, gdm-64, gdm-86, gdm-88, gdm 93-2a, 93-4b, gdm-13 and gdm-115 amplified 3, 2.9, 4.1, 4.7, 3, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 5.8, 4.1 and 1.4 loci per variety, respectively. Most diverse varieties of wheat were identified (Punjab-81 and Indus-79) and recommendations were made to utilize these varieties in future breeding program.