Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria
AbstractThe ethnobotanical efficacy of Indian medicinal plants; Achyranthes aspera, Artemisia parviflora, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis gigantean, Lawsonia inermis, Mimosa pudica, Ixora coccinea, Parthenium hysterophorus and Chromolaena odorata were examined using agar disc diffusion method against clinical bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and phytopathogenic bacteria (Xanthomonas vesicatoria and Ralstonia solanacearum). Leaves were extracted using different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Among treatments, maximum in vitro inhibition was scored in methanol extracts of C. odorata which offered inhibition zone of 10, 9, 12 and 12 mm against E. coli, S. aureus, X. vesicatoria and R. solanaccearum, respectively, followed by chloroform extract of the same plant leaf with inhibition zone of 8, 4, 4 and 4 mm, respectively. A significant inhibition of E. coli was found in aqueous and in all tested solvent extracts of A. indica. In case of S. aureus, maximum inhibition of 8 mm was obtained in aqueous extracts of A. indica and 6 mm from methanol extract of L. inermis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for the clinical
bacteria ranged between 0.35 to 4.0 mg/ml and 0.25 to 4.0 mg/ml for phytopathogenic bacteria when tested with all four solvents extracts of C. odorata. Whereas, extracts of A. aspera, A. parviflora, C. gigantean, L. inermis, M. pudica and I. coccinea were found to be ineffective or showed poor inhibition on tested human and phytopathogenic bacteria.