Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium
AbstractEnormous volumes of effluent are generated at different stages of textile manufacturing, as a result of the use of copious amounts of chemicals and dyes. Several tons of textiles required to meet up with societal demands are produced daily in this industry. Effluent derived from the textile and dyestuff
activities can provoke serious environmental impact in the neighboring receptor water bodies because of the presence of toxic reactive dyes, chlorolignin residues and dark coloration. Nature has demonstrated its capacity to disperse, degrade, absorb or otherwise dispose of unwanted residues in the natural sinks of the atmosphere, waterways, ocean and soil. It is realized however that this ability is not finite. The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or
affect one or more species in the environment, with resultant changes in the ecological balance. The biological breakdown of the chlorolignin residues and the chromophoric groups responsible for the dark coloration of the textile effluent can be accomplished by the use of enzymes from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The siderophores detected from the culture of the organism have been found useful in the decolourization and remediation of the effluent. This review summarizes the available information in the use of this fungus for bioremediation purposes and also assesses the current status of the technology.