Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and mineral content of the seed of Detarium senegalense JF Gmelin
Detarium senegalense JF Gmelin (Caesalpiniaceae), commonly known as tallow tree, is used traditionally for the treatment of bronchitis, pneumonia, internal complaints and skin diseases in Tropical Africa. The seed is used as a soup thickener in Eastern Nigeria. Analysis of the petroleum ether extract of the seeds with GC-MS produced ten constituents of which oleic and linoleic acids were the most prominent (30.8 and 44.1% respectively). The extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus kristinae, Streptococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum. Proximate analysis revealed that the seeds contain 24.43% carbohydrate, 7.23% protein, 31.16% fiber, 5.89% moisture and 1.93% ash. Mineral content analysis revealed the concentrations of potassium (99.26 mg/g), calcium (71.11mg/g), magnesium (77.83 mg/g), sodium (55.26 mg/g), iron (30.21 mg/g), manganese (7.89 mg/g), zinc (5.26 mg/g) and copper (4.29 mg/g). These results show the nutritional value of the seeds of D. senegalense and justified its use in the traditional treatment of skin diseases.
Key words: Detarium, GC-MS, antimicrobial, proximate analysis, mineral content.