Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites: Impact on fecundity and progeny development
Mosquitoes exploit almost all types of aquatic habitats for breeding. Prevailing physicochemical parameters in these habitats are important factors for survival and development of mosquito. Here, six water samples from Atlantic Ocean, River, well, distilled (control), rain and borehole water were used to culture Anopheline eggs collected from pure bred of Kisimu species. The development of eggs to 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars larval, pupal and adult stages were observed from day 1 to 6 using six replicates of each water sample. The number of eggs laid (fecundity) by the emerged adults were estimated using counting microscope. Level of development in emerged adults was determined using the wing size. The analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water samples was carried out in the Nigerian Institute of Marine and Oceanography. The physicochemical characteristics were compared with the
rates of development and fecundity of the Anopheline species. Statistical analysis using ANOVA indicates no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the hatchability of the eggs. However, the rates of larval development to pupal stage and subsequent adult emergence showed a level of significant difference (P < 0.05). Also, wing length for determining adult size showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitat which may have bearing on vector population and distribution as well as malaria transmission in a particular area.