Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels in broiler chicks
The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with lead acetate in a single dose at a rate of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 mg/kg of body weight respectively for twenty five days consecutively. Various biochemical parameters, that is, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, creatinine and uric acid were determined by using spectrophotometer. A significant (P<0.05) increase was recorded in GPT, creatinine and uric acid levels in all medicated groups. The GPT, creatinine and uric acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in groups medicated with high doses of 240 and 280 mg/kg b.wt of lead acetate. Analysis of variance showed that the DATA were significant not only from the single factor (dose/days) point of view, but also from their combined effect (dose rate × different days of analysis), which gave significant results with a P value less than 0.05. The mortality rate of 20% was observed for the groups medicated with 120, 160 and 200 mg/kg b.wt, while 60% was observed for the groups medicated with 240 and 280 mg/kg b.wt. Postmortem revealed gross lesions on liver, lungs, kidney and brain at high doses of lead acetate. The lead was also accumulated in different organs, such as, the bone (14.83 ± 0.18 μg/g), brain (2.63 ± 0.16 μg/g) and liver (1.05 ± 0.16 μg/g). These results showed that lead possessed significant capability of bioaccumulation. However, it also revealed that lead toxicity increased as the dose increased and high dose of lead caused both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in broiler chickens.
Keywords: Lead acetate, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, broiler chicken.