Incidence of dengue virus infections in febrile episodes in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Background: Dengue viruses have been identified as the most important arboviral pathogen in the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes species. While dengue infection is accompanied by little or no subclinical signs in many, about 1-2% may produce clinically severe Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. Early recognition, appropriate treatment and elimination of mosquito vectors will help control it. The study is aimed at determining the incidence of dengue infections in Ile-Ife.
Materials and Methods: Three millilitres venous blood was collected from each of one hundred and seventy nine patients presenting with fever in the last two weeks, and analyzed for the presence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies using Dengue Virus IgM ELISA kit (DIA.PRO, Italy) according to the manufacturer’s instructions while the results and demographic data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.
Results: It was observed that 46 (25.7%) of the 179 had detectable IgM antibodies to dengue virus with 9 of them having no detectable malaria parasite. The incidence was 26.5% and 25% in male and female respectively. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the relatedness of blood transfusion as an important risk factor to the transmission of dengue virus.
Conclusion: The study established the presence of fresh dengue infections for the first time in Ile-Ife among different groups of people. Clinicians are advised to prioritize laboratory diagnosis, especially of fever.
Key words: Dengue, Dengue shock, Flaviviridae, ELISA, IgM