High prevalence of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a tertiary teaching hospital in western Kenya
Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram negative enterobacteriaciae commonly associated with nosocomial infections. Multidrug resistant strains are increasingly being reported with corresponding increase in morbidity and mortality. The study outlines the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of K. pneumonia over a 10 year period in Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya.
Methodology and Study Design: This is a retrospective analysis of all the blood culture results for K. pneumoniae isolates in the hospital for the period 2002-2013.
Results: K. pneumoniae accounted for 23% of the hospital isolates (231/1356) during the study period; of these, 82.6% were from the New Born Unit. Most of the isolates were multi drug resistant with highest resistance of over 80% to Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Sulphonamides, Lincosamides and Chloramphenicol. Aminoglycoside and Quinolone resistance was also high at 49.2% and 41.3% respectively. The lowest resistance rates were documented for Carbapenems (23.2%). For specific antibiotics, there was high resistance to commonly used antibiotics (over 80% for Ceftriaxone, Cefipime, Gentamycin and Ceftazidime). The antibiotics with least resistance were Amikacin and Meropenem (21% and 7 % respectively).
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates in the hospital, the majority originated from the New Born Unit. Resistance to third generation Cephalosporins and Gentamycin was high while Meropenem and Amikacin had the least resistance.
Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae; Antibiotic resistance; Multi drug resistance; Nosocomial infections