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Accumulation of brevetoxins by passive sampling devices
We report on initial investigations into the use of polymer-based passive sampling devices for the chronic time-integrated measure of brevetoxins in natural waters. Polyethylene membranes readily accumulated brevetoxins, but reached steady state within a few days, likely owing to surface saturation on the polyethylene membrane and steric hinderance of movement of the large brevetoxins through the membrane. In contrast, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) exhibited no apparent steric hindrance and followed linear uptake kinetics of brevetoxins for at least two weeks. The PDMS membranes show excellent promise as a passive sampling device for the measurement of chronic exposure to brevetoxins in nature.