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African Journal of Neurological Sciences

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Sellar tuberculoma: a rare presentation in a 30-year-old Ethiopian woman: case report

Biniyam Alemayehu Ayele, Wako Abdinasir, Bane Abate, Tessema Abdi

Abstract


Background: Tuberculosis rarely involves the hypothalamo-pitutary axis. Only 1% of CNS Tuberculoma involves sellar and suprasellar structures. It mainly presents with symptoms of chiasmal compression, hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus due to destruction of pituitary itself. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue analysis collected by trans-sphenoidal biopsy.

Case presentation: We report a 30-year-old female patient from Addis Ababa, who presented with a global headache, blurring of vision, excessive polyuria, constitutional symptoms of tuberculosis and multiple axillary lymph node enlargement. Biopsy from the axillary lymph node showed caseous granulomatous lesions and brain MRI showed mild thickening of the pituitary stalk and mildly enlarged posterior piturary lobe with hypo-sellar extension and mild communicating hydrocephalus.

Conclusion: Considering the available evidence a diagnosis of systemic tuberculosis involving pituitary, lung and lymph node was made and a patient was started on anti-tuberculosis medication together with dexamethasone and carbamazepine. Following treatment initiation patient showed significant clinical improvement. After nine months of anti-tuberculosis treatment all brain MRI findings were resolved and patient become symptom free and discharged from care after one year completion of anti-tuberculosis medication.

Keywords: Tuberculoma, Polyuria, Pituitary gland, Diabetes Insipidus




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