Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation

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Chronic Kidney Disease in Police Forces Households in Khartoum, Sudan: Pilot Report

H Abu-Aisha, A Elhassan, A Khamis, A Abu-Elmaali


Introduction: In the Police Forces Hypertension, Diabetes, Renal Insufficiency and Thyroid Derangement (HyDRIT) pilot study we explored the prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment adequacy and complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non-communicable diseases among adult Police Forces households in two housing complexes in Khartoum, Sudan.
Methods: Serum creatinine measurements and urine dipstick testing were performed for 273 individuals. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the standardized Cockroft-Gault and the four variable MDRD formulas. CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or proteinuria.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD was 11% (30/273) using the standardized Cockroft-Gault equation and 7.7% (21/273) using the four variable MDRD equation. According to the standardized Cockroft-Gault formula, 14 subjects had reduced GFR with negative urine dipstick testing, two subjects had both proteinuria and reduced GFR, and 14 subjects had proteinuria without reduction in GFR. None of those subjects was aware of his kidney problem. According to the standardized Cockroft-Gault formula, 14 of the identified CKD cases were hypertensive (46.7%); eight of them (57.1%) had a prior diagnosis of hypertension but none achieved therapeutic targets. Four of the identified CKD cases were diabetic (13.3%), three of whom had a prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with reasonably controlled blood sugar levels. Only age above 50 years and low educational level proved to be independent risk factors for CKD in multivariate analysis.
Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD in the study population seems to be comparable to other countries.

Keywords: awareness, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, prevalence, Sudan
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