Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in Childhood Oliguric/Anuric Acute Kidney Injury

  • WA Olowu
  • O Adefehinti
Keywords: Aminophylline, Dialysis, Survival, Urine Flow


Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline.
Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children treated with (N=9) and without (N=8) aminophylline. Studied outcome indices comprised urine flow rate (UFR), duration of oliguria/anuria, progression through AKI stages, number of patients requiring dialysis and mortality.
Results: Mean ages for the control and aminophylline arms were 4.6±2.7 and 4.9±2.1 years (P=0.7), respectively. All patients progressed to stage-3 AKI. Baseline median UFRs in the aminophylline and control arms were similar (0.13 Vs 0.04 ml/kg/hour respectively, P=0.5). The median UFR was significantly higher on day-5 (0.8 Vs 0.1; P=0.03), day-6 (1.0 Vs 0.2; P=0.02), and day-7 (1.2 Vs 0.2; P=0.03) in the aminophylline than the control arm, respectively. Short duration of oliguria/anuria (≤ 6 days) was more frequently observed in aminophylline- treated patients compared to controls (77.8% Vs 25.0%; odds ratio 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.89; P=0.04). Only the aminophylline group maintained steady serum creatinine levels. Four out of five patients in the control group were dialyzed compared to only one out of eight patients in the aminophylline group (odds ratio 0.16; 95% CI: 0.04-0.71; P=0.03). Mortality rates were similar in aminophylline- treated and control patients (33%Vs 25%; hazard ratio 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-5.5; P=0.8).
Conclusion: Aminophylline therapy was beneficial for patients with AKI in terms of improved UFR and reduced need for dialysis, but failed to impact positively on survival.

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eISSN: 1858-554X
print ISSN: 1858-554X