An Audit of Perineal Trauma and Vertical Transmisson Of HIV
Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of 110 HIV positive and 134 HIV negative parturients were enrolled in the study. The incidence of episiotomy was more in the HIV negative group (p=0.0000) while that of perineal tear was not affected by HIV status (p=0.17). The rate of episiotomy was significantly affected by primigravidity in HIV negative subjects (OR= 0.032, 95% CI 0.0072-0.13). The rate of perineal tear was significantly affected by primigravidity in HIV positive subjects (OR=8.55, 95% CI 1.91-38.7) and multigravidity in HIV negative subjects (OR= 0.030, 95% CI 0.133-0.71). Gestational age and mean birth weight had no effect on the rate of episiotomy (p value =0.57 and 0.30) and perineal tear (p value= 0.79 and 0.061). There was no mother-to-child HIV transmission. Episiotomies should be given when needed irrespective of HIV status because of the risk of consequent perineal tear and with HAART the risk of MTCT from perineal trauma is minimal.
Keywords: HIV positive; perineal trauma; episiotomy; perineal tear; MTCT