Association of Brucellosis with Abortion Prevalence in Humans and Animals in Africa: A Review
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease suspected to be the cause of abortions which remain largely undiagnosed in both humans and animals. A review of literature was performed to elucidate the contribution of brucellosis to abortions in humans, livestock and wildlife in Africa. A total number of 18 published articles associated brucellosis to abortions observed in humans and livestock in some parts of Africa. The contribution of brucellosis to abortions in humans was less reported in the literature compared to livestock; and no report was done in wildlife in Africa. The association of brucellosis to abortions in Africa was mostly based on bacteriologic, serologic or molecular techniques and Brucella abortus biovar 3 seemed more associated to abortions in cattle. The isolation and molecular characterization of Brucella species could advance the assessment of the contribution of brucellosis to abortions in Africa, focusing much in humans. The epidemiologic approach based on case-control comparisons could elucidate more about the contribution of brucellosis to abortions in Africa. The economic impact evaluation of abortions due to brucellosis could justify implementation of eradication programs of this disease in Africa, such as occupational and food hygiene in humans; with a vaccination and culling in animals.
Keywords: Spontaneous abortions, Brucellosis, mammals, Africa