Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions and methanolic extract of Philonotis hastate (Duby Wijk & MargaDant).
Background: Bryophytes like other lower plants (non-vascular plants) are not traditionally employed for therapeutic purposes. Hence this study evaluated the in vitro anti-oxidant potentials and anti-inflammatory activities of the fractions and methanolic extract of Moss (Philonotis hastata, Duby) with a view to studying its biological activities.
Methods: Plant materials were collected, identified, dried, pulverized and extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol to afford methanolic extract (ME). The ME was fractionated using solvent of increasing polarity and followed by phytochemical screening of the extract and fractions. The anti-oxidant potentials (total phenolics and flavonoids), anti-oxidant activities (DPPH-radical scavenging, reductive power, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ABTS+ radical scavenging) and anti-inflammatory activity (red blood stabilizing) of the extract and fractions were investigated.
Results: Phytochemicals detected included alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The fractions and methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant potentials with various models. The flavonoid contents of the methanol extract and fractions ranged between 1.70 ± 0.05 and 129.70 ± 1.00 mg/g extract RE (Rutin Equivalent) and total phenol content ranged between 1.84 ± 0.62 and 136.25 ± 0.18 mg/g extract TAE (Tannic Acid Equivalent). The reductive power activity ranged between 5.71 ± 0.02 and 40.40 ± 0.30 mg/g Vitamin C equivalent, the hydroxyl radical scavenging (15.54 ± 0.02 to 30.07± 0.29 %), and the ABTS+- radical scavenging activity (11.59 ± 2.85 to 40.50 ± 1.35%). The membrane stabilizing potentials of the fractions and extract (methanol) ranged between 19.19 ± 2.66% and 78.26 ± 2.60%. The activities were comparable to standard antiinflammatory drugs and chemicals.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that the fractions and methanol extract of P. hastata exhibit moderate, potent and appreciable anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities with aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions elicited highest activities. As such, bryophytes possess therapeutic potentials and could be employed in the treatment and management of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory disorders.
Key words: Philonotis hastata, bryophytes, membrane - stabilizing, flavonoids, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory.