Phytochemical screening, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of pentanisia prunelloides from the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

  • Gugulethu Mathews Miya
  • Idris Ajayi Oyemitana
  • Oyehan Opeoluwa Oyedeji
  • Samuel Oluwatobi Oluwafemi
  • Benedicta N. Nkeh-Chungag
  • Sandile Phindile Songca
  • Adebola Omowumi Oyedejia
Keywords: Rubiaceae, secondary metabolites, oral acute toxicity, analgesic, anti inflammatory


Background: Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents.

Methods and Materials: Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD50) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents.

Results: The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50 of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) reduced egg albumininduced paw oedema and paw licking in mice induced by formalin, signifying antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities respectively.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the leaf and rhizome of P. prunelloides are rich in various phytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

Keywords: Rubiaceae, secondary metabolites, oral acute toxicity, analgesic, anti inflammatory


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eISSN: 0189-6016