Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by Ormenis eriolepis a Morrocan endemic plant in various human cancer cell lines
Background: Ormenis eriolepis Coss (Asteraceae) is an endemic Moroccan subspecies, traditionally named “Hellala” or “Fergoga”. It’s usually used for its hypoglycemic effect as well as for the treatment of stomacal pain. As far as we know, there is no scientific exploration of anti tumoral activity of Ormenis eriolepis extracts.
Materials and Methods: In this regard, we performed a screening of organic extracts and fractions in a panel of both hematological and solid cancer cell lines, to evaluate the potential in vitro anti tumoral activity and to elucidate the respective mechanisms that may be responsible for growth arrest and cell death induction. The plant was extracted using organic solvents, and four different extracts were screened on Jurkat, Jeko-1, TK-6, LN229, SW620, U2OS, PC-3 and NIH3T3 cells.
Results: Cell viability assays revealed that, the IC50 values were (11,63±5,37μg/ml) for Jurkat, (13,33±1,67μg/ml) for Jeko-1, (41,67±1,98μg/ml) for LN229 and (19,31±4,88μg/ml) for PC-3 cells upon treatment with Oe-DF and Oe-HE respectively. Both the fraction and extract exhibited no effects on TK6 and NIH3T3. Cytometry analysis accompanied by DNA damage signaling protein levels monitoring (p-H2A.X), showed that both the Dichloromethane Fraction and Hexanic extract induce DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) accompanied by cell cycle arrest in G1 (Jurkat, Jeko -1 and LN22) and G2/M (PC-3) phases which is agreed with the caspase activity observed. Additional experiments with selective inhibitors of stress and survival pathways (JNK, MAPK, Rho, p53, and JAK3) indicated that none of these pathways was significantly involved in apoptosis induction. The bioactive compound analysis by CG/MS indicated that the major compounds in Oe-DF were: Linoleic Acid (15,89%), Podophyllotoxin (17,89%) and Quercetin (22,95%). For Oe-HE the major molecules were: Linoleic Acid (9,76%), α-curcumene (7,07%), α-bisabolol (5,49%), Campesterol (4,41%), Stigmasterol (14,08%) and β-sitosterol (7,49%).
Conclusion: Our data suggest that bioactive compounds present in Ormenis eriolepis show significant anti proliferative activity inducing cell cycle arrest and cell death operating through apoptosis pathway.
Keywords: Ormenis eriolepis Coss, cancer cell lines, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, bioactive compounds
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